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A new type of religion



The realities of the day determine the general attitude of the individual which later fan out into the public sphere. We have lived the reality of a pandemic these past nine months and it seems Covid-19 is not going away anytime soon. There are many conspiracy theories being born out of the confusion bred by the airborne virus, and their number is increasing with each passing day. This is not unnatural, for where the enemy seems to come from all sides, the masses scatter in confusion as the citizens of Troy were the night Achilles’ Myrmidons and Menelaus’ Spartan (Mycenaean) armies tore them from within.

The reality of the moment is that we have a virus in our midst, and the social and economic havoc it has wreaked far outweighs the statistics of the dead. Many a moment one sits musing on John Steinbeck’s Depression Era account The Grapes of Wrath, not because of the increasing poverty, but because of the unfolding reality that this disease will leave us more scattered than we were before it came.

It is a cold season that awaits us this time around with the pandemic entering its second phase. The results are going to be worse than anything we have seen before, because the poor are going to get poorer and with their poverty the levels of crime are going to increase. White collar crimes, blue collar crimes and any other types of crime are sure to increase as desperation levels increase.

When Chief Justice Mogoeng Mogoeng made his prayer and was attacked for it, the reality is that he may have been telling the truth; he may have been misinterpreted by those who have made Covid-19 a new type of religion: burning everyone who dares question the attitudes around its handling on the social media stakes. An SABC News article quotes his prayer:

“I lock out every demon of COVID-19. I lock out any vaccine that is not of you. If there be any vaccine that is of the devil, meant to infuse 666 in the lives of people, meant to corrupt your DNA, any such vaccine, Lord God Almighty, may it be destroyed by fire.”
This prayer is supported by Reverend Kelvin Harris, who leads the Bosmont Congregational Church. He says:

“And this is where I agree with Chief Justice Mogoeng Mogoeng. COVID-19 is holding the world in its grip. No person, no company, no group, no nation can benefit millions of billions of rand from any vaccine, otherwise such vaccine is from the devil.”
The words of the judge may sound as if they are religious mantras, but the reality of the matter is that almost everyone in this world holds some type of religious affiliation. Whether pledging allegiance to some stone god or Jehovah, Buddha, Allah, a bird or a tree, religion has always turned out to support the Marxist notion that religion is the opium of the masses.

In a time of great pain, everyone needs a shot of some morphine, a derivative of the opium poppy in a literal or figurative sense, and this time around people are looking for some salve to soothe the anguish of the pain the realities that came with the pandemic have brought into the social sphere.

People are in reality tired of living life under ‘the new normal’, in fact, the oppression brought by medical disasters has taken its toll on humanity in the last 200 years without repose. From the Spanish flu of the World War One era to smallpox, the polio, the crabs, gonorrhea, syphilis, Ebola, to AIDS, it has been one long fight with medical failures. Medicine as a profession has effectively failed to deal with disease outbreaks since the beginning of what one can term as ‘the pharmaceutical era’ where provision of treatment in the form of an annual or monthly vaccine or medicine doses is considered an option that is better than providing the cure.

There are in reality far too many medical lies hidden behind the bureaucracy of the profession. Anything and everything about medical malpractice is protected by idiosyncrasies peculiar to the profession that include doctor patient confidentiality, Hippocratic oaths, and other such lame defences aimed at convincing whoever is gullible enough that the doctors are hard at work trying to deal with a disease.

The results attest to something different: doctors have in their quest for material wealth become ineffective agents of dealing with disease outbreaks. What have become fashionable are the new age over-the-counter medicines that make illegally humongous profits for pharmaceutical companies owned by the doctors themselves. The focus is on providing lifelong treatment for a given condition rather than to provide a single dose that just gets it over and done with when it comes to curing a disease.

This COVID-19 thing is already spinning a lot of money for individual companies (Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson, Glaxo-Smith Kline, Moderna, Biontech, and a host of others). It seems that the medical game is to ensure that the malaise drags for as long as possible to ensure that these pharmaceutical giants make as much as they can from the cure.

It is true that one is not a medical professional, but the question remains: How could Edward Jenner fashion a vaccine for smallpox with the rudimentary technologies he had in the 1700’s, and ‘medical experts’ in an age (21st century) with such advanced technology fail to deal with a strain of flu? It is a ‘all animals are equal but some animals are more equal than others’ type of scenario where human beings from poorer regions will always be the last to receive assistance when dealing with their realities in their excluded world.

Every other profession is questioned for its misdemeanours, but politics and medicine are hardly questioned for their failures, the former for its increasing levels of corruption, and the latter for its justified incompetence. Health is at the core of every individual’s life, the basic determinant of whether an individual can contribute to the running of society. This means that matters of health should be put at the forefront of every discussion; there is just no time for quacks to quack like ducks in a pool when it comes to the provision of any cure. This is to ensure that the economic base that lies in a society’s human base is healthy enough to deal with any challenges that come in the way of social progress.

Humanity seems not to have progressed an inch ever since the day they decided that profit should be made out of everything, even life and health. When cures start being sold like sweets on every street corner, then we are bound to have a tribe of quacks selling their own concoctions without regard to the conventions.
An October, 2006 letter by Laura Grande letter on medical ethics argues that:

It is commonly believed that the way in which a disease enters and interacts with the body must be understood in order for a treatment for an illness to be discovered. Is there a completely ethical way to discover a disease’s natural process in the body when, in order to find it, no treatment can be given to an infected individual? Many would argue that this is ethical as long as no proven treatment exists to help the ailing person and the person knowingly agrees to participate in the research.

The moral soundness of this process is surely altered, however, when a treatment that has been proven effective at combating the disease becomes available. At this point, it becomes a moral obligation of those monitoring the disease’s process through the body to provide the “subjects” with the proper medication.

Medication that deals with only a part of the disease is in my layman terms improper because it then leaves the patient with the burden of living next door to a monster that might snuff them out at any moment. It should be the credo of the profession to provide full cures and not these half-baked lab experiments that have turned a larger part of humanity into lab rats used to test individual company vaccines. It seems the name of the game with current medicine is to produce no cure but to provide only treatment.

There are no cures around if you come to think of it, only treatments: look around if you do not agree. What this means is that we spend half our productive time worried about invisible disease instead of fashioning new ideas that could aid in the progress of our lives and the lives of our fellow community members. A human being worried about the poverty brought by the pandemic now has to constantly worry about coming across soldiers or the police without a mask.

It was never the initial idea to get rid of the disease it seems: the idea was to get us worried enough to remain within control. The technocrat that is benefiting from the tenders will disagree, but not everyone is fooled by the Scaramouch panning out in front of our eyes: we are being herded into the arms of poverty in the name of medicine and disease.

What the average politician does not know is that more 680 million people had to face poverty and starvation in 2019; 12% or more will face it during the course of the pandemic this year, meaning 89 to 100 million more people will face the full brunt of poverty and starvation according to a GAVI report. The reality is that government policy just gave in to the pandemic’s health demands and preventative measures without considering the socio-economic impacts the lockdowns as preventative measures would have.
The average street vendor making a livelihood lost it in the middle of the pandemic’s lockdowns, the average company had to lay off workers to escape going under, and the entire Third World economy structure that is reliant on SMME economies crashed, perhaps never to rise again.

In the middle of the flowery political speeches made in the name of pleasing the pharmaceutical lords, the political leadership has all but forgotten about the children of the vendors and low-to-middle income workers whose jobs have been lost without the promise of them being recovered. It is a bleak time ahead, and the precautionary measures are likely to be thrown out of the window as the hunger levels increase and the masses begin to face the reality hunger and poverty come with the disease.

The loquacity with which we speak of things we hardly understand as Africans will lead to our ruin. There is talk about a second wave of the COVID-19; we hardly understand what the first actually meant. Running helter-skelter for tenders, the moneyed secret societies go on and begin to rev their fear machines for the sake of instilling fear in the masses. I personally do not think that fear of the unknown ever got anyone anywhere; the fear of what we know has the same effect.

The latter is however a bigger sin when medical scientists and politicians behave as if science is supernatural or that a new strain of a known disease is so bad that it cannot be beaten by human resilience to the point of it being the monster that ate the entire human nations in history books. I guess the Spanish Flu pandemic is the worst after the Bubonic Plague of the Middle-Ages, and both were beaten: why then should we bow down before Covid with all the technology and scientific wisdom at our disposal? Perhaps it is time that Caesar has to be paid his dues as Jesus predicted over 2000 years ago. If it is so, then so Caesar be paid for the sake of the normal life we knew before the virus escaped out of the lab for some reason unknown.

Grande speaks against the withdrawal of information from the subjects when it comes to medical research largely because information is what informs the subjects’ choice to comply or not to comply. We remain vague on the information about COVID-19 in this country and in reality only wear masks because some soldier or police officer was videotaped assaulting whoever was not complying with ‘regulations’. Such regulations are not considerate of vendors, low-skilled workers, migrant workers, vulnerable social groups and other poor people. It seems the goal is just to please master WHO protocols all the time without considering the livelihoods in name of the food packages handed out to the poor that do not seem to consider reality a whit. Grande states:

Today, a rigorous protocol for human experimentation procedures is in place. It is now generally accepted that, for a research study involving human experimentation to be morally sound, it must include, ideally, the disclosure of all relevant information and must hold human life as most important (Bonnie 67).

Merry Christmas, that is, if Christmas will be merry in the midst of a pandemic and the realities of hunger and starvation staring us in the face as a continent and part of the Third World. Merry ignorance, merry mind control to the government withholding information from us, merry covid hogwash.

Tšepiso S. Mothibi

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Harnessing imagery in writing



All writing is imaginative. Every piece of writing reflects the artistry and mental resourcefulness of the writer.

Effective writing also reflects the colourfulness of the writer’s mind and heart; their ability to paint the world to the reader and their capacity or facility of taking the reader with them to beautiful mental and physical and picturesque journeys.

In this piece we focus on how we can hone our creative abilities through the use of imagery and the effect of using colourful and evocative imagery in writing. Let’s go! What if I say, “Learn to prepare wisely and meticulously in time,” you will still grasp the message in a very clear way, isn’t it? But would that be interesting and colourful?

But what if we put it in a colourful manner, “Make hay whilst the sun still shines,” you really grasp the colour and the full import of the message, isn’t it? That’s what imagery does to your writing; it allows you to feel, touch and smell what you are reading.

There is no doubt that the proverb, “make hay whilst the sun still shines” has taken you to the countryside, in a farming community. You hear the bleating of sheep and the neighing of horses.

At the same time, you visualise the good farmer gracefully at work, cutting grass which he is piling in orderly stacks, preparing fodder for his animals in the future. The sun’s rays buoy his attempts and ensure that the hay is prepared with care and colour.

Thus, the point of good imagery is to capture in full detail a world that allows the reader to grasp and enjoy using their five senses. Let me give you a small but beautiful extract which further drives home the point.

“With his machete he detached a brittle clod, broke it on a stone. It was full of dead twigs and the residue of dried roots that he crushed in his fingers.

“Look, there isn’t anything left. The water has dried up in the very entrails of the mountain. It’s not worth while looking any further. It’s useless.” Then, with sudden anger, “But why, damn it! Did you cut the woods down, the oaks, the mahogany trees, and everything that grow up there? Stupid people with no sense!”

Thando struggled for a moment to find words. “What else could we do, brother? We cleared it to get new wood. We cut it down for framework and beams for our hearts. We repaired the fences around our fields. We didn’t know ourselves. Ignorance and need go together, don’t they?”

The sun scratched the scorched back of the mountain with its shining fingernails. Along the dry ravine the earth panted. The countryside, baked in drought, began to sizzle.”

What a colourful piece! The extract aptly paints a countryside’s pulse and the rhythms of seasonal and climate change and how that affects the livelihood patterns of the inhabitants. Have you seen how the sun has been endowed with human-like features?

And the description of the earth assuming human-like features, for instance, “the earth panted.” No doubt, you have seen the earth subdued by the intensity of heat in a way that is similar to a person who is panting.

To paint excellent images the writer needs to have the gift of observation. He/she should be able to observe quite a panorama of things around him and immerse them in the soil of their imagination. Let’s see another good extract where you can discern the link between good images, excellent description and the power of observation.

“It’s in the morning, the fourth watch, to borrow from biblical discourse. It’s damp outside. I brace the slicing chilly weather to go outside. There is a drizzle, constant showers seeping deep down. I pace up at least 400 metres from my hood. I see lined-up, almost cubicle-like houses.

I keep walking, with a spring in the step buoyed by the damp aura wrought by the incessant downpours. I take a deep breath, and step back as it were.

I want to be deliberate. I want to take in everything in my environment; the colours, the diverse hues and plethora of landscape contours. I notice a woman, almost in her forties, from my eye-view assumptions. She is grabbing a basket clutched tenaciously almost close to her big bosom.

She is going to Mbare Musika, the famous agricultural market wherein she intends to buy items for her stall. Behind her, there is a big strapped baby covered in velvet. As she briskly walks, I see her jumping a poodle of water as she observes her stall. I also observe a man, clad in sportswear running trying to cure a big belly.

As I keep watching, I see a woman sweeping her small veranda. I keep walking. I see a woman, plump tending to her garden. She seems animated by the drizzle, thanks to the rains.

I hear another woman, especially her piercing voice, she is selling floor polish. Her voice fills the air. As I drown in the sweet voice, I notice a man staggering. He is filthy. He could have calloused the whole night. He is holding a Black Label quart, speaking gibberish in the air. I keep watching.”

So here were are! Writing is a matter of painting with words, carving images and allowing the reader to experience the impact of all the senses so as to fully grasp the sense of what is put across.

Vuso Mhlanga teaches at the University of Zimbabwe. For almost a decade and half he taught English language and Literature in English at high school.

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Politicians’ propensity to score own goals



Lesotho politicians are often in the habit of scoring own goals. For example, look at the circus that took place in the country at the opening of parliament after the winter break. These events remind me of the article that I wrote with the title ‘Scoring own goals’.

This article appeared in this publication dated March 18 – 24, 2021. It argued that Lesotho’s politicians had a propensity to score own goals.

Many say that education and academia should not involve themselves in politics. This belief is a fallacy. The two are intrinsically intertwined. Education and politics link in a complex way.

For instance, parliament is an organ that passes laws that govern and guide national education policies. The interconnectedness includes the curricula that educational institutions and schools teach. Now, if the National Assembly’s focus is misplaced, important legislative decisions may stall or be derailed by lack of action.

I must make a disclaimer though. I am not promoting any view about a political party. I am writing this article purely as a concerned citizen.

I revisit the own goal tendency of those in authority by assessing the drama that unfolded in politics and governance. I review the recent events that culminated in the failed vote of no confidence against Prime Minister Sam Matekane and his government.

I use arguments from research to demonstrate the fluidity of Lesotho’s democracy. Some politicians often take advantage of this fluidity for selfish gain. I contest that the Prime Minister and his government should treat their adversities as stepping stones to meeting their targets.

A constitution is a living document. Accordingly, to keep Lesotho’s constitution alive, current and relevant, parliament should regularly amend it.

However, in so doing, parliament must be careful that tinkering with the country’s constitution does not compromise the essence of democracy they champion. National and democratic principles must form the dogma that underpins the improvements and amendment exercises.

Personal aspirations, ambitions and creed must not underpin the amendments.

The recent events in and out of the National Assembly make one question the perceptions of the different roles players in the democratic playground in Lesotho have.

First, there was a vote of no confidence that the Speaker ruled to defer subject to the high court’s decision.

Second, there was the allegedly drunken MP’s own goal.

The third is the press conference led by the Commissioner of the Lesotho Mounted Police Services flanked by the head of the Lesotho Defence Force and the Director General of the National Security Services.

It is already a hat trick of own goals. Fourth, there was the statement of the Prime Minister claiming an attempted coup.

The fifth own goal is the moratorium that prevented parliament from holding a vote of no confidence against the Prime Minister before the lapse of three years of his inauguration.

The sixth is the practice of shirking responsibility by MPs. MPs often refer political matters to the national courts for decisions. The seventh, and the mother of all own goals, is the electoral system that Lesotho elected to pursue. The National Assembly has 120 MPs. There are 80 MPs representing constituencies and 40 proportional representatives.

The Commonwealth suggested that Lesotho review the modalities of the PR nominations. Sekatle and the Commonwealth agree that the PR system introduced plurality but at a cost. The cost is what scholars and commentators term minority rights and coalitions.

Also, it compromises accountability and transparency. It undermines the collective intelligence of the voters. Chief Jonathan warned against coalition governments by citing their instability. Political instability plagues Lesotho today.
Sekatle and the Commonwealth cited the overreliance on a threshold in awarding PR seats in parliament, cheapening them.

The PR system ballooned parliament unnecessarily. By comparison, Botswana had a population of 2.6 million in (2021). Lesotho had 2.3 million (2021). Botswana parliament currently has 65 seats, and Lesotho has 120.

A consequence emanating from the PR system in Lesotho is a hung parliament. Since 2012, there has not been an outright majority in the National Assembly. The results yielded chaos. Over that period, PMs constantly look over their shoulders. All these coalitions imploded.

Democracy is about the majority. Politicians must be persuasive to attract votes to achieve the majority. In other words, the PR system rewards failure.

The own goals cause stagnation. MPs score these own goals by serving their selfish interests. They waste time and energy on trivial things. And yet, they receive full-time salaries and earn allowances such as sittings and petrol allowances. How, then, would one explain that the external urging of parliament had to engage in the reforms exercise?

Today, reforms are lying latent. Politicians use the reform programme as an excuse for ensuring that they retain or access power. In the recent correspondences to SADC, the government and the opposition cite reforms and democracy to justify their actions. But as I write this article, there is nothing much that is happening along the lines of these very reforms. Why?

The starting point of any achievement is desire and definitiveness of purpose. The definitiveness of purpose is more than goal setting. It is one’s roadmap to achieving the overall objectives. Elsewhere, I took the definition of desire as explained by the author, Wallace Wattles.

According to Wattles, ‘Desire is possibility seeking expression, or function seeking performance’. All desires began as a thought. Expressing their desires through a manifesto is a means by which parties attempt to concretise them (their desires).

The starting point of an election campaign is the expression of political intentions and goals through manifestos. A manifesto is a public declaration of aims and policy by a political party or candidate. Political parties express their desires for what they will do in their manifestos.

After elections, these desires become the guiding principles and laws. Politically mature voters would then elect political candidates based on these manifestos.

Who instigated and drove the reforms in Lesotho? The contemporary history of Lesotho reveals that external forces pushed the reforms. Basotho merely reacted. They do not own the reform process. High on the list of their drivers are SADC, the US through AGOA and the European Union.

The practice contradicts Wattles’ definition. According to Wattles definition, desire must emanate from inside the individual, or in our case, from Basotho and be expressed outward through actions.

I do not want to comment too much about the involvement of the security agencies in politics. In my view, the relevant bodies, namely, the Law Society of Lesotho, the media and the opposition parties dealt with their involvement adequately.

Former PM Leabua Jonathan often described democracy as the government of the people by the people. But, the meaning of the construct of democracy is fluid and elusive, depending on the position of governance in Lesotho’s political arena.

Authors Hughes, Kroehler and Vander Zanden explain that democracy is a system in which the powers of government derive from the consent of the governed, namely the masses who vote, in which regular constitutional avenues exist for changing government officials.

The authors characterise the system as one which permits the population a significant voice in decision-making through the people’s right to choose among contenders for political office. Also, the system allows for a broad, relatively equal citizenship among the populace.

Lastly, it affords the citizenry protection from arbitrary state action.

Now, the question is whether the recent activities fit all the three criterias. Are the actions of the MPs who moved for the vote of no confidence in the PM’s government acting in line with Lesotho’s constitution and democracy?

This definition of democracy says that regular constitutional avenues exist for changing government officials. The no confidence vote exists in Lesotho’s constitution. But the PM and his security agencies questioned this. They claim the move by the members of the opposition to dethrone the government was a coup attempt.

The drama began when an MP from the ruling Revolution for Prosperity (RFP), Thabo Moea MP, sought an order from the High Court to delay the motion of no confidence against the Prime Minister until after the completion of the reforms process.

The opposition contests that the prayer by Moea stifles a democratic process for self-serving ends. Subsequently, the Speaker cited this impending case to defer the matter.

The constitution of Lesotho stipulates that the legislature is to pass laws, the executive is to approve and execute them, and the judiciary is to expound and enforce them. But a scholar, Nwafor, claims that the courts in Lesotho often intrude into the functions of the other arms of government.

Lesotho ‘s constitution confers powers on three arms of government in such a manner as would ensure cooperation and coordination in governance. The courts ought to bear in mind that the effective discharge of the responsibilities of the courts largely depends on the effectiveness of the other arms of government.

Nwafor brings up the issue of encroachment. He asserts that the powers of the different arms of government in such a manner would guarantee a coordinated discharge of government responsibilities to the nation. But, parliament overly relies on the courts to make political decisions. The practice encourages the risk of overreaching.

The PR electoral system denies Basotho the right to choose their representatives among contenders for political office. Instead, parties ‘hand pick’ these representatives in the pretext of the constituency elections outcomes. Often, these PR members are the ones who lost their constituency elections.

These are the politicians whose constituencies rejected them. They represent their parties and not the voters. They do not account to the voters.

Both the PM and the opposition made presentations to SADC. They overlooked the electorate. Why would SADC have power and not the electorate that elected the politicians to office? Running to SADC, an outside organisation, to settle Lesotho’s internal problems is not a solution. It is scoring an own goal. Lesotho, with its 57 years of independence, should be able to solve its internal problems.

Nonetheless, I have a completely different take from Mokhothu on the issue of the protest march by the RFP. It is unimportant to find the instigator of the protest march. The people to persuade are the voters, the people who put governments into power in a democracy, not external bodies such as SADC.

Napoleon Hill’s creed reads: ‘Every adversity brings a seed of equivalent or more benefit’. Any business person knows that business is a solution to an economic problem. So, the PM and his colleagues in his party who are business people must look at the adversity emanating from the opposition as a seed of equivalent or better benefit.

The government must dig deep to find how the problem may benefit them.
They must identify their failures and use them as stepping stones to success.

Elsewhere, I presented the views of an American scholar and activist, Anderson, who suggested that marginalised communities must cease granting candidates blank cheques. Instead, the electorate must draw their expectations and demand the campaigning party or candidate promise to meet them.

This practice is called quid pro quo. It enforces accountability and transparency.

You scratch my back, and I scratch yours. Quid pro quo is an example of one of the universal laws that demonstrate reciprocity. Reciprocity is the practice of exchanging things with others for mutual benefit. The universal law is the Law of Cause and Effect. It means that for every effect, there is an equal cause. You plant a seed, so shall you reap.

Both the government and the opposition ran to SADC for help. Remember, Matekane is a successful businessman. He has, on more than one occasion, explained that he wanted to use his prowess in business to take Lesotho forward. As a businessman, Matekane has faith in his ability.

Words that come to mind here include self-confidence and trust in himself. He believes in himself. Running to SADC does not display this faith in his ability to deal with problems emanating from his opposition.

Hill argues that riches, or any form of success and achievement, begin with a thought. Faith removes limitations. Matekane must apply his faith as a businessman to become a successful politician.

To summarise, the article explores the events emanating from the fiasco of the no-confidence motion. The individuals who ought to champion constitutional democracy in Lesotho betrayed Basotho by scoring hordes of own goals.

I explored the meaning of concepts that helped me unpack some of these own goals. These were democracy, faith and desire. Also, I coupled these with scholarly research views on the constitution of Lesotho.

I contest that while the opposition may argue that they are within their rights to ruffle the government, the PM must use different tactics. He must display faith and confidence in himself and trust Basotho.

The move to influence the voters to back him deserves a big WOW! He must hold more campaigns to persuade voters to support his government. Voters may make or break him.

MPs waste time in discussing trivial issues that have no bearing on the national agenda. Often, they focus on self-serving matters. The RFP promised to refocus Lesotho towards national development and improving the quality of life.

The article also shows that the PR system does not benefit Lesotho. It diminishes accountability and the principle of quid pro quo. Also, it ballooned the numbers in parliament unnecessarily. It increased political instability by forging formations of coalition.

Politicians must refrain from abusing the judiciary by making them make political decisions. Involving the courts in making political decisions leads to encroachment. Encroachment defies democracy.

In conclusion, Matekane must not allow his detractors to derail his mandate. The same is true for the opposition leaders who attempt to dethrone him. No party campaigned on removing sitting PMs.

Also, the MPs must take the responsibilities that Basotho entrusted them with. It is high time that they make the political decisions instead of shifting them to the judiciary or external bodies.

Matekane, his business associates and technocrats in his government should revisit attributes that made them successful. One such attribute is their faith in their abilities. They must remember that riches (and success) begin with a thought, and faith removes limitations.

Dr Tholang Maqutu


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Painting mood effectively



Writing is not different from beautiful artwork. Just like a skilled painter holding a brush with its broad strokes, the writer occupies the same place and vocation in life. Writing is a work of painting life’s experiences, its hues and beautiful unfolding internal journeys. In this piece we focus on mood and how it can be achieved. Many students struggle with understanding and contemplating the scope and ambit of mood in writing.
It is hard to define and frame the scope of mood in writing. What really constitutes mood? Generally, mood encapsulates the totality of the “air” or “spirit” or “aura” that a certain work of art evokes in the human mind, feeling or sensibility. There is a certain dominant feature or streak associated with a certain work of art, place or person.

There is something which is evoked in our hearts which is associated with a certain place, person or event. Every place or event or person carries or imbues with him or her a certain mood or sensibility; and there is a panorama of sensibilities; for instance, a happy or sombre or whimsical mood. We will now focus on a certain extract and discern how it paints mood.

“He quickly rights himself and keeps walking, but there is an unsteadiness to his knees. He has been given many looks in this quarter – dirty ones, blank ones, sympathetic ones, annoyed ones. For the most part, he had learned to tolerate those than can be tolerated, and ignore those that should be ignored, but the look this woman gave him is not a look one gives to humans but to flies, ticks, cockroaches, fleas…Thato feels anger, then humiliation, then something nameless. If he were in his own country he would turn and confront the woman; but now he’s hurt, wounded, a part of him wishing he were invisible. Breathing evenly, he walks with care, only lifting his eyes once he reaches his own quarters, among his own people. He proceeds to his shack. He could stop by Thapelo’s, his neighbour, where he knows that men and women are already congregated to watch videos from home. Yet, no matter the promise of good fellowship and laughter, Thabo does not join them. Watching videos is a form of forgetting; the 2008 elections, the police with batons, the soldiers with guns, the militia with machetes. Do you remember? Limbs broken. Roofs blazing. I remember.”

This extract is characterised by the intensity of feeling and evokes feelings of sadness, despair and pain. The excerpt paints a harrowing and blood-curdling account which produces a sombre, dull and subdued mood. Thato, the protagonist in the story is in a foreign land. He was impelled to leave his country as a result of political violence which saw many people lose limbs and lives. He feels lonely and unwanted in the foreign land. He feels lost and alienated.

There are sentiments of xenophobia expressed through the glances of citizens of the foreign country he is in. Even if he were to entertain himself together with his countrymen residing in that foreign land, Thato still felt a deep and nagging feeling of being an outcast. Thus, we have made very deep and broad descriptions of the circumstances in which the protagonist finds himself with a view to demonstrate how mood is created in a narrative. The creation of mood feeds into the description of the character’s circumstances, his mindset and the space and place in which he finds himself.

Mood, as we have demonstrated from the portrayal of Thato’s experience, has a link with pathos. Pathos is that streak of sadness which pervades a story and creates empathy in the reader. The aim of effective writing is to move the reader and to impel him towards certain sensibilities which are of an affective kind. Mood, when effectively created, allows the reader to grasp meaning which is not directly said in the story or composition.

Meaning in a story is an interaction between the words in a text as read together with the effect of the words, the tone used and the created mood. There are certain words in a text which do not just communicate, but etches in the reader’s mind certain thoughts, viewpoints and feelings. These words would be so evocative. One such word describes Thato’s deepest sense of alienation in the extract given above.

The word describes him as nursing a wish of invisibility, he felt or wished he were ‘invisible.’ His wish for invisibility is of great importance. It portrays how he was deeply affected by the loathing expressed in the eyes of those looking at him with hate and disdain.

So, here we are! Creating a mood is a craft which takes time to acquire and hone. But when achieved, it makes effective reading and allows the reader to get meaning which goes beyond the text.

Vuso Mhlanga teaches at the University of Zimbabwe. For almost a decade and half he taught English language and Literature in English at high school. Send your comments and questions to:

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