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Erasing bullying



The times are changing and with them the differences in generational trends become clearly marked, and the simple things that occur with each passing epoch are done at different levels; from the simple to the extreme.
The concept of bullying seems to be rearing its head more times than it did in the past, with more frequent mentions in media of the social kind with its varied platforms of expression.

What is at both ends of the bullying equation has however never been discussed in depth with regard to the true causes and the notions that come with the reality bullying has become.

Sat down with a brother, and we discussed the different levels of bullying, and the only side lacking was the counterpart, that is, the discussion could have perhaps covered more, been more than what the pioneering talk turns out to be; the first step towards uncovering the true face of bullying and what it has become in society, and to do away with all its unsavoury elements: through talk and engagement with the relevant parties to reach suitable solutions.

Individuals, families, and communities at some point experience the effects of bullying, and for many, it becomes unbearable and prevents their harmonious progress toward set goals.

For those strong enough to bear the full brunt of bullying to the point where they reach their goals, a point of advice may be needed on how such individuals overcame the effects of bullying. Such meetings as the one that I had with a long-term brother of mine covered some (if not all) salient causes to bullying as a phenomenon of the social kind.

The discussion turned up seven causes, and these include; insecurity, imposition, vice, lack of self awareness, narcissism, discrimination, and ignorance of the realities. There may well be other causes that are found out as the discussion progresses countrywide in different landscapes of differing social levels.

These include homes, workplaces, schools, communities, relationships, social organisations, and institutions where bullying tends to be encountered first-hand.

The original plan intends that the discussion we had on the day should reach the entire country, that is, the rooting out of such social malaises as bullying should from this moment forth be done in a united fashion where all sectors of society share ideas and solutions to prevalent social problems.
A close analysis of the causes of bullying, that is, the act where a person deliberately intimidates or is cruel to weaker people in order to discourage or frighten them with threats in a domineering manner; the bully sets out to abuse the victim. Often bossy, the bully seeks to stamp their authority by being abusive commonly expressed as violence towards the victim.

Despite the show of bravado, previous research done on the phenomenon turns out that the bully may themselves have previously been abused in the same manner, and so they perpetuate it to assert their status as the ‘big guy’ even in instances where it is not necessary.

This behaviour is a sign of deeply sat insecurity which makes the perpetrator feel better about themselves at the expense of the happiness of those that are abused. Addressing the bully’s past experiences and exploring their possible cures could prove to be remedy to a painful social phenomenon that is on the rise and needs to be curbed before it spirals out of control.

The insecure figure shall often be seen to assert their place in a clique, the society, or the organisation through imposition. The bully does not understand their place; in fact, the bully does not know that they do not have to go to the extremes to prove their worth in the community or society.
The forcible manner in which the bully wants to be heard, to be known, and for their ideas to be accepted without question stems from the need to be understood or accepted as the best person in sight; well, it is not possible that one can be the best everytime, for the truth of the matter is one may excel in certain landscapes but would be forced by nature and the circumstances of the moment to adjust, learn, and adapt to new environments.

This is not the case with the bully who often seeks to mark each territory or social landscape as the lead figure. The bully has the misconstrued view that their ideas are the best, and even if they are trash that has no logical basis, the bully somehow always finds a way to usurp into the freedoms of others by imposing their ‘best’ view which may not essentially be best to everyone or those being bullied into accepting it.

To maintain the lead, junior members (those with lesser power or the weak) of his or her immediate circle are often forced to do duties they would under normal conditions never do. The coercive manner in which they are treated by the bully is the only thing that spurs them forward, to fulfil the personal needs and desires of the bullying figure. Bullies hardly have concern for the needs or opinions related to the welfare of others.

They seek everything to be as ‘they wish’ which is not the case in real life: not all can be as one wishes everytime, there are moments when one should compromise and refrain from practices meant to prove their power over others who have lesser influence and power.

This is the part where one realises that bullying always carries some ulterior motive, and the main one amongst them is the unchecked ambition to be better than everyone else that is around.

This kind of behaviour may stem from the bully’s past; where they could have been exposed to abuse or neglect or to the effects of poverty caused by systematic economic segregation where members of a given sector are deprived of the basic individual, social and economic needs.
The bully in this instance thus develops a mindset that is sadistic, criminal and intentional, meaning that all they mete out to their victim is carefully planned in advance.

Society as of the today needs individuals that are self-aware and confident in their own persons, that is, we need the kind of individual that knows that they cannot be without the presence of others supporting them. This in brief means that the ‘self-worth’ of one should be measured against the manner in which they engage with others. Who is considerate of others and their needs does not often resort to the intimidation tactics of the bully. A considerate person shall instead of forcing others to follow his will show them what it is they really seek to achieve.

Whatever it is the considerate individual wants to achieve is for the benefit of all involved or in the immediate trajectory. This is not the case with the bully that is constantly seeking to find their self-worth which they find by putting down others, that is, these kinds of people find their peace or worth through making others feel less significant than they are.

In brief, the bully tends to be a narcissistic figure who is too self-absorbed to realise that his or her sense of worth is largely dependent on how he or she relates with others. That we need each other to be does not often seem to count in the case of bullies.

Difference is the spice of life, for if we were to wake up similar one day, the world would be a boring space. The bullying character does not understand this aspect of life and since they are self-absorbed, and self-obsessed, bullies tend to hate or fear that which is different from what they conceive the world should be.

The expression of this kind of behaviour is found in discrimination where certain individuals are bullied or discriminated against based on their outward appearance, culture, or behaviour.

The lack of understanding comes from the poor conception of what diversity really serves in the progression of human civilisation. The parts of an engine are different, and they look different, but all of them work together to get the vehicle running.

One finds expressions of bullying in such practices as tribalism and racism; where certain members of a group or sector of society hold the notion that they deserve the benefit of being the sole proprietors of the rewards from human industry. It is a narcissistic tendency figures such as Bantu Steven Biko expressed in these words:

Those who know, define racism as discrimination by a group against another for the purposes of subjugation or maintaining subjugation. In other words one cannot be a racist unless he has the power to subjugate.

The bullying is not just a schoolyard phenomenon that occurs between minors; it stretches all the way to the highest echelons of government in a state. Where one sector feels that they can coerce their opposition just on the basis of their having control of the means of production and the policing forces, it is bullying in action on a large scale.

Close analysis of the perpetrators shall soon reveal all the signs and the characteristics of a schoolyard bully, and the only difference is that the size of the ground has increased a thousand-fold.

Whether it be in schools, in the home, workspaces, communities, relationships, social organisations, and institutions, bullying carries one main characteristic, the ignorance of the realities of life such as freedom of choice, humility, humanity, and character.
The bully expects that the horse should be a dog because they are in the same locus. The bully wants to create as many self images as possible, and anyone or anything that does not suit their self-made image has to be harassed.

I have always wondered how it would be like if the bully were to take a mental journey to Lilliput as the lead character in Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels and reach those places where horses are noble and where there are giants.

Such a pilgrimage would teach the bully that humility is a virtue and also that there are bigger things than what one often conceives of themselves. Bullying is not just unique to certain individuals, all of us are open and vulnerable to falling into its clutches if we do not try and understand that all of us are born equal and are therefore worthy of equal treatment in terms of our basic human and constitutional rights.

The tendency of the age is to ostracise all that does not conform and all that seem to be different are harassed just on the basis of their being different.
That one should conceive the world and its people to be an entity that should shift at whim is one of the signs that bullying is in its infant stages in the mind of the individual that so believes.

What the campaign on the 11th of March in Mapoteng aims to achieve is to erase all the signs in their infancy, before they become a menace to the world.

Many people have become victims of bullying in its different forms on different platforms and across the various landscapes where human beings have to interact on a day to day basis. What has not been done over the long stretch of history is that bullying has never been confronted head on; it was only mentioned in passing like a hushed wrong.

The increase in the spate of violent bully attacks in recent days has triggered concern in the minds of those who care and my brother, Mosesanyane Mokotjomela of Imperial Secondary School, stands afore as one of those figures who are bold enough to take a stance against the malaise of bullying.
A bully should never be tolerated at all costs, for in their pursuit of the pain of others, the intimidation of the weak, the ostracisation of the different, and the sadistic tendency to hurt others, the bullying type chains the progress of the world.

There is just no painting a harmonious picture of the world with the bully’s spectre hanging over the smiling faces of people at peace with each other. The bully must be erased from the picture.
For the sake of peace and the well-being of the people of the world, it must be erased. Morena Moshoeshoe oa Pele said, “U ka nketsang ha e ahe motse . . . ” this statement paraphrased means, “haughtiness never built a village”. The haughty bully must be erased . . . re-taught.

Tsepiso S Mothibi

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Harnessing imagery in writing



All writing is imaginative. Every piece of writing reflects the artistry and mental resourcefulness of the writer.

Effective writing also reflects the colourfulness of the writer’s mind and heart; their ability to paint the world to the reader and their capacity or facility of taking the reader with them to beautiful mental and physical and picturesque journeys.

In this piece we focus on how we can hone our creative abilities through the use of imagery and the effect of using colourful and evocative imagery in writing. Let’s go! What if I say, “Learn to prepare wisely and meticulously in time,” you will still grasp the message in a very clear way, isn’t it? But would that be interesting and colourful?

But what if we put it in a colourful manner, “Make hay whilst the sun still shines,” you really grasp the colour and the full import of the message, isn’t it? That’s what imagery does to your writing; it allows you to feel, touch and smell what you are reading.

There is no doubt that the proverb, “make hay whilst the sun still shines” has taken you to the countryside, in a farming community. You hear the bleating of sheep and the neighing of horses.

At the same time, you visualise the good farmer gracefully at work, cutting grass which he is piling in orderly stacks, preparing fodder for his animals in the future. The sun’s rays buoy his attempts and ensure that the hay is prepared with care and colour.

Thus, the point of good imagery is to capture in full detail a world that allows the reader to grasp and enjoy using their five senses. Let me give you a small but beautiful extract which further drives home the point.

“With his machete he detached a brittle clod, broke it on a stone. It was full of dead twigs and the residue of dried roots that he crushed in his fingers.

“Look, there isn’t anything left. The water has dried up in the very entrails of the mountain. It’s not worth while looking any further. It’s useless.” Then, with sudden anger, “But why, damn it! Did you cut the woods down, the oaks, the mahogany trees, and everything that grow up there? Stupid people with no sense!”

Thando struggled for a moment to find words. “What else could we do, brother? We cleared it to get new wood. We cut it down for framework and beams for our hearts. We repaired the fences around our fields. We didn’t know ourselves. Ignorance and need go together, don’t they?”

The sun scratched the scorched back of the mountain with its shining fingernails. Along the dry ravine the earth panted. The countryside, baked in drought, began to sizzle.”

What a colourful piece! The extract aptly paints a countryside’s pulse and the rhythms of seasonal and climate change and how that affects the livelihood patterns of the inhabitants. Have you seen how the sun has been endowed with human-like features?

And the description of the earth assuming human-like features, for instance, “the earth panted.” No doubt, you have seen the earth subdued by the intensity of heat in a way that is similar to a person who is panting.

To paint excellent images the writer needs to have the gift of observation. He/she should be able to observe quite a panorama of things around him and immerse them in the soil of their imagination. Let’s see another good extract where you can discern the link between good images, excellent description and the power of observation.

“It’s in the morning, the fourth watch, to borrow from biblical discourse. It’s damp outside. I brace the slicing chilly weather to go outside. There is a drizzle, constant showers seeping deep down. I pace up at least 400 metres from my hood. I see lined-up, almost cubicle-like houses.

I keep walking, with a spring in the step buoyed by the damp aura wrought by the incessant downpours. I take a deep breath, and step back as it were.

I want to be deliberate. I want to take in everything in my environment; the colours, the diverse hues and plethora of landscape contours. I notice a woman, almost in her forties, from my eye-view assumptions. She is grabbing a basket clutched tenaciously almost close to her big bosom.

She is going to Mbare Musika, the famous agricultural market wherein she intends to buy items for her stall. Behind her, there is a big strapped baby covered in velvet. As she briskly walks, I see her jumping a poodle of water as she observes her stall. I also observe a man, clad in sportswear running trying to cure a big belly.

As I keep watching, I see a woman sweeping her small veranda. I keep walking. I see a woman, plump tending to her garden. She seems animated by the drizzle, thanks to the rains.

I hear another woman, especially her piercing voice, she is selling floor polish. Her voice fills the air. As I drown in the sweet voice, I notice a man staggering. He is filthy. He could have calloused the whole night. He is holding a Black Label quart, speaking gibberish in the air. I keep watching.”

So here were are! Writing is a matter of painting with words, carving images and allowing the reader to experience the impact of all the senses so as to fully grasp the sense of what is put across.

Vuso Mhlanga teaches at the University of Zimbabwe. For almost a decade and half he taught English language and Literature in English at high school.

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Politicians’ propensity to score own goals



Lesotho politicians are often in the habit of scoring own goals. For example, look at the circus that took place in the country at the opening of parliament after the winter break. These events remind me of the article that I wrote with the title ‘Scoring own goals’.

This article appeared in this publication dated March 18 – 24, 2021. It argued that Lesotho’s politicians had a propensity to score own goals.

Many say that education and academia should not involve themselves in politics. This belief is a fallacy. The two are intrinsically intertwined. Education and politics link in a complex way.

For instance, parliament is an organ that passes laws that govern and guide national education policies. The interconnectedness includes the curricula that educational institutions and schools teach. Now, if the National Assembly’s focus is misplaced, important legislative decisions may stall or be derailed by lack of action.

I must make a disclaimer though. I am not promoting any view about a political party. I am writing this article purely as a concerned citizen.

I revisit the own goal tendency of those in authority by assessing the drama that unfolded in politics and governance. I review the recent events that culminated in the failed vote of no confidence against Prime Minister Sam Matekane and his government.

I use arguments from research to demonstrate the fluidity of Lesotho’s democracy. Some politicians often take advantage of this fluidity for selfish gain. I contest that the Prime Minister and his government should treat their adversities as stepping stones to meeting their targets.

A constitution is a living document. Accordingly, to keep Lesotho’s constitution alive, current and relevant, parliament should regularly amend it.

However, in so doing, parliament must be careful that tinkering with the country’s constitution does not compromise the essence of democracy they champion. National and democratic principles must form the dogma that underpins the improvements and amendment exercises.

Personal aspirations, ambitions and creed must not underpin the amendments.

The recent events in and out of the National Assembly make one question the perceptions of the different roles players in the democratic playground in Lesotho have.

First, there was a vote of no confidence that the Speaker ruled to defer subject to the high court’s decision.

Second, there was the allegedly drunken MP’s own goal.

The third is the press conference led by the Commissioner of the Lesotho Mounted Police Services flanked by the head of the Lesotho Defence Force and the Director General of the National Security Services.

It is already a hat trick of own goals. Fourth, there was the statement of the Prime Minister claiming an attempted coup.

The fifth own goal is the moratorium that prevented parliament from holding a vote of no confidence against the Prime Minister before the lapse of three years of his inauguration.

The sixth is the practice of shirking responsibility by MPs. MPs often refer political matters to the national courts for decisions. The seventh, and the mother of all own goals, is the electoral system that Lesotho elected to pursue. The National Assembly has 120 MPs. There are 80 MPs representing constituencies and 40 proportional representatives.

The Commonwealth suggested that Lesotho review the modalities of the PR nominations. Sekatle and the Commonwealth agree that the PR system introduced plurality but at a cost. The cost is what scholars and commentators term minority rights and coalitions.

Also, it compromises accountability and transparency. It undermines the collective intelligence of the voters. Chief Jonathan warned against coalition governments by citing their instability. Political instability plagues Lesotho today.
Sekatle and the Commonwealth cited the overreliance on a threshold in awarding PR seats in parliament, cheapening them.

The PR system ballooned parliament unnecessarily. By comparison, Botswana had a population of 2.6 million in (2021). Lesotho had 2.3 million (2021). Botswana parliament currently has 65 seats, and Lesotho has 120.

A consequence emanating from the PR system in Lesotho is a hung parliament. Since 2012, there has not been an outright majority in the National Assembly. The results yielded chaos. Over that period, PMs constantly look over their shoulders. All these coalitions imploded.

Democracy is about the majority. Politicians must be persuasive to attract votes to achieve the majority. In other words, the PR system rewards failure.

The own goals cause stagnation. MPs score these own goals by serving their selfish interests. They waste time and energy on trivial things. And yet, they receive full-time salaries and earn allowances such as sittings and petrol allowances. How, then, would one explain that the external urging of parliament had to engage in the reforms exercise?

Today, reforms are lying latent. Politicians use the reform programme as an excuse for ensuring that they retain or access power. In the recent correspondences to SADC, the government and the opposition cite reforms and democracy to justify their actions. But as I write this article, there is nothing much that is happening along the lines of these very reforms. Why?

The starting point of any achievement is desire and definitiveness of purpose. The definitiveness of purpose is more than goal setting. It is one’s roadmap to achieving the overall objectives. Elsewhere, I took the definition of desire as explained by the author, Wallace Wattles.

According to Wattles, ‘Desire is possibility seeking expression, or function seeking performance’. All desires began as a thought. Expressing their desires through a manifesto is a means by which parties attempt to concretise them (their desires).

The starting point of an election campaign is the expression of political intentions and goals through manifestos. A manifesto is a public declaration of aims and policy by a political party or candidate. Political parties express their desires for what they will do in their manifestos.

After elections, these desires become the guiding principles and laws. Politically mature voters would then elect political candidates based on these manifestos.

Who instigated and drove the reforms in Lesotho? The contemporary history of Lesotho reveals that external forces pushed the reforms. Basotho merely reacted. They do not own the reform process. High on the list of their drivers are SADC, the US through AGOA and the European Union.

The practice contradicts Wattles’ definition. According to Wattles definition, desire must emanate from inside the individual, or in our case, from Basotho and be expressed outward through actions.

I do not want to comment too much about the involvement of the security agencies in politics. In my view, the relevant bodies, namely, the Law Society of Lesotho, the media and the opposition parties dealt with their involvement adequately.

Former PM Leabua Jonathan often described democracy as the government of the people by the people. But, the meaning of the construct of democracy is fluid and elusive, depending on the position of governance in Lesotho’s political arena.

Authors Hughes, Kroehler and Vander Zanden explain that democracy is a system in which the powers of government derive from the consent of the governed, namely the masses who vote, in which regular constitutional avenues exist for changing government officials.

The authors characterise the system as one which permits the population a significant voice in decision-making through the people’s right to choose among contenders for political office. Also, the system allows for a broad, relatively equal citizenship among the populace.

Lastly, it affords the citizenry protection from arbitrary state action.

Now, the question is whether the recent activities fit all the three criterias. Are the actions of the MPs who moved for the vote of no confidence in the PM’s government acting in line with Lesotho’s constitution and democracy?

This definition of democracy says that regular constitutional avenues exist for changing government officials. The no confidence vote exists in Lesotho’s constitution. But the PM and his security agencies questioned this. They claim the move by the members of the opposition to dethrone the government was a coup attempt.

The drama began when an MP from the ruling Revolution for Prosperity (RFP), Thabo Moea MP, sought an order from the High Court to delay the motion of no confidence against the Prime Minister until after the completion of the reforms process.

The opposition contests that the prayer by Moea stifles a democratic process for self-serving ends. Subsequently, the Speaker cited this impending case to defer the matter.

The constitution of Lesotho stipulates that the legislature is to pass laws, the executive is to approve and execute them, and the judiciary is to expound and enforce them. But a scholar, Nwafor, claims that the courts in Lesotho often intrude into the functions of the other arms of government.

Lesotho ‘s constitution confers powers on three arms of government in such a manner as would ensure cooperation and coordination in governance. The courts ought to bear in mind that the effective discharge of the responsibilities of the courts largely depends on the effectiveness of the other arms of government.

Nwafor brings up the issue of encroachment. He asserts that the powers of the different arms of government in such a manner would guarantee a coordinated discharge of government responsibilities to the nation. But, parliament overly relies on the courts to make political decisions. The practice encourages the risk of overreaching.

The PR electoral system denies Basotho the right to choose their representatives among contenders for political office. Instead, parties ‘hand pick’ these representatives in the pretext of the constituency elections outcomes. Often, these PR members are the ones who lost their constituency elections.

These are the politicians whose constituencies rejected them. They represent their parties and not the voters. They do not account to the voters.

Both the PM and the opposition made presentations to SADC. They overlooked the electorate. Why would SADC have power and not the electorate that elected the politicians to office? Running to SADC, an outside organisation, to settle Lesotho’s internal problems is not a solution. It is scoring an own goal. Lesotho, with its 57 years of independence, should be able to solve its internal problems.

Nonetheless, I have a completely different take from Mokhothu on the issue of the protest march by the RFP. It is unimportant to find the instigator of the protest march. The people to persuade are the voters, the people who put governments into power in a democracy, not external bodies such as SADC.

Napoleon Hill’s creed reads: ‘Every adversity brings a seed of equivalent or more benefit’. Any business person knows that business is a solution to an economic problem. So, the PM and his colleagues in his party who are business people must look at the adversity emanating from the opposition as a seed of equivalent or better benefit.

The government must dig deep to find how the problem may benefit them.
They must identify their failures and use them as stepping stones to success.

Elsewhere, I presented the views of an American scholar and activist, Anderson, who suggested that marginalised communities must cease granting candidates blank cheques. Instead, the electorate must draw their expectations and demand the campaigning party or candidate promise to meet them.

This practice is called quid pro quo. It enforces accountability and transparency.

You scratch my back, and I scratch yours. Quid pro quo is an example of one of the universal laws that demonstrate reciprocity. Reciprocity is the practice of exchanging things with others for mutual benefit. The universal law is the Law of Cause and Effect. It means that for every effect, there is an equal cause. You plant a seed, so shall you reap.

Both the government and the opposition ran to SADC for help. Remember, Matekane is a successful businessman. He has, on more than one occasion, explained that he wanted to use his prowess in business to take Lesotho forward. As a businessman, Matekane has faith in his ability.

Words that come to mind here include self-confidence and trust in himself. He believes in himself. Running to SADC does not display this faith in his ability to deal with problems emanating from his opposition.

Hill argues that riches, or any form of success and achievement, begin with a thought. Faith removes limitations. Matekane must apply his faith as a businessman to become a successful politician.

To summarise, the article explores the events emanating from the fiasco of the no-confidence motion. The individuals who ought to champion constitutional democracy in Lesotho betrayed Basotho by scoring hordes of own goals.

I explored the meaning of concepts that helped me unpack some of these own goals. These were democracy, faith and desire. Also, I coupled these with scholarly research views on the constitution of Lesotho.

I contest that while the opposition may argue that they are within their rights to ruffle the government, the PM must use different tactics. He must display faith and confidence in himself and trust Basotho.

The move to influence the voters to back him deserves a big WOW! He must hold more campaigns to persuade voters to support his government. Voters may make or break him.

MPs waste time in discussing trivial issues that have no bearing on the national agenda. Often, they focus on self-serving matters. The RFP promised to refocus Lesotho towards national development and improving the quality of life.

The article also shows that the PR system does not benefit Lesotho. It diminishes accountability and the principle of quid pro quo. Also, it ballooned the numbers in parliament unnecessarily. It increased political instability by forging formations of coalition.

Politicians must refrain from abusing the judiciary by making them make political decisions. Involving the courts in making political decisions leads to encroachment. Encroachment defies democracy.

In conclusion, Matekane must not allow his detractors to derail his mandate. The same is true for the opposition leaders who attempt to dethrone him. No party campaigned on removing sitting PMs.

Also, the MPs must take the responsibilities that Basotho entrusted them with. It is high time that they make the political decisions instead of shifting them to the judiciary or external bodies.

Matekane, his business associates and technocrats in his government should revisit attributes that made them successful. One such attribute is their faith in their abilities. They must remember that riches (and success) begin with a thought, and faith removes limitations.

Dr Tholang Maqutu


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Painting mood effectively



Writing is not different from beautiful artwork. Just like a skilled painter holding a brush with its broad strokes, the writer occupies the same place and vocation in life. Writing is a work of painting life’s experiences, its hues and beautiful unfolding internal journeys. In this piece we focus on mood and how it can be achieved. Many students struggle with understanding and contemplating the scope and ambit of mood in writing.
It is hard to define and frame the scope of mood in writing. What really constitutes mood? Generally, mood encapsulates the totality of the “air” or “spirit” or “aura” that a certain work of art evokes in the human mind, feeling or sensibility. There is a certain dominant feature or streak associated with a certain work of art, place or person.

There is something which is evoked in our hearts which is associated with a certain place, person or event. Every place or event or person carries or imbues with him or her a certain mood or sensibility; and there is a panorama of sensibilities; for instance, a happy or sombre or whimsical mood. We will now focus on a certain extract and discern how it paints mood.

“He quickly rights himself and keeps walking, but there is an unsteadiness to his knees. He has been given many looks in this quarter – dirty ones, blank ones, sympathetic ones, annoyed ones. For the most part, he had learned to tolerate those than can be tolerated, and ignore those that should be ignored, but the look this woman gave him is not a look one gives to humans but to flies, ticks, cockroaches, fleas…Thato feels anger, then humiliation, then something nameless. If he were in his own country he would turn and confront the woman; but now he’s hurt, wounded, a part of him wishing he were invisible. Breathing evenly, he walks with care, only lifting his eyes once he reaches his own quarters, among his own people. He proceeds to his shack. He could stop by Thapelo’s, his neighbour, where he knows that men and women are already congregated to watch videos from home. Yet, no matter the promise of good fellowship and laughter, Thabo does not join them. Watching videos is a form of forgetting; the 2008 elections, the police with batons, the soldiers with guns, the militia with machetes. Do you remember? Limbs broken. Roofs blazing. I remember.”

This extract is characterised by the intensity of feeling and evokes feelings of sadness, despair and pain. The excerpt paints a harrowing and blood-curdling account which produces a sombre, dull and subdued mood. Thato, the protagonist in the story is in a foreign land. He was impelled to leave his country as a result of political violence which saw many people lose limbs and lives. He feels lonely and unwanted in the foreign land. He feels lost and alienated.

There are sentiments of xenophobia expressed through the glances of citizens of the foreign country he is in. Even if he were to entertain himself together with his countrymen residing in that foreign land, Thato still felt a deep and nagging feeling of being an outcast. Thus, we have made very deep and broad descriptions of the circumstances in which the protagonist finds himself with a view to demonstrate how mood is created in a narrative. The creation of mood feeds into the description of the character’s circumstances, his mindset and the space and place in which he finds himself.

Mood, as we have demonstrated from the portrayal of Thato’s experience, has a link with pathos. Pathos is that streak of sadness which pervades a story and creates empathy in the reader. The aim of effective writing is to move the reader and to impel him towards certain sensibilities which are of an affective kind. Mood, when effectively created, allows the reader to grasp meaning which is not directly said in the story or composition.

Meaning in a story is an interaction between the words in a text as read together with the effect of the words, the tone used and the created mood. There are certain words in a text which do not just communicate, but etches in the reader’s mind certain thoughts, viewpoints and feelings. These words would be so evocative. One such word describes Thato’s deepest sense of alienation in the extract given above.

The word describes him as nursing a wish of invisibility, he felt or wished he were ‘invisible.’ His wish for invisibility is of great importance. It portrays how he was deeply affected by the loathing expressed in the eyes of those looking at him with hate and disdain.

So, here we are! Creating a mood is a craft which takes time to acquire and hone. But when achieved, it makes effective reading and allows the reader to get meaning which goes beyond the text.

Vuso Mhlanga teaches at the University of Zimbabwe. For almost a decade and half he taught English language and Literature in English at high school. Send your comments and questions to:

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