By Ntsikoe E Likiki
With its unparalleled use of the accordion instrument, command of praise poetry and storytelling ability, Famo music has for many decades captured the culture and lifestyles of the Basotho people.
Over the years Famo music has transformed from just music but also into an independent culture.
In as much as it has produced internationally acclaimed giants such as Apollo Ntabanyane, Mosotho Chakela, Mahlanya, and many more, Famo is nevertheless blamed for the interminable gang murders, political killings and other heinous acts of violence which have headlined the newspapers in the motherland and abroad for many years.
This article looks into the history of Famo, the politics surrounding the gang wars and questions the future of the genre.
It is accounted that Famo emerged in the drinking dens of the mine workers in as early as the 1920s. Towards the late ’70s, the concertina instrument was introduced into the genre by the legendary Samuel Motho.
Around the 1980s, the accordion was adopted and the music grew and spawned renowned bands such as Tau ea Mats’ekha (Lion of Mats’ekha), which consisted of Apollo Ntabanyane and Forere Motloheloa, famously noted for their 80s hit Ha Peete kea falla, meaning ‘I’m leaving Peete’s place.’
Other artists and bands who rose to prominence then include the veteran songstress Puseletso Seema, the late Thabo Lesholu, Mahosana a ka Phamong and Setsokotsane sa Mekaling to mention a few. Back then, the music concerned itself with the struggles of life, matters of love and marriage, and the realities of Khauteng’s (Gauteng) reckless life; as this was the place where things happened.
The music gained popularity in the Soweto communities such as Randfontein and Carltonville. It was also played in notorious places such as Snawana, Phiri, Molapo, Mapetla, Naledi and Moletsane.
The places are referred to as notorious since they were the meeting lairs of the criminal network of the Basotho migrants called Marashea (Russians or Ma+Russia), who are said to have lived in South Africa after the Second World War. They adopted the name following the victory of the USSR over Germany in that war.
Marashea also established themselves as a gang which sought to protect its members from urban gangsters and rivals of other ethnic groups in and around Johannesburg. It is in these meetings where the late Thabo Lesholu, who is said to have been the boss of Marashea, entertained and motivated his gang-members with his marvelous performances. This leads me up to the issue of gang wars in Famo.
Legend has it that Seakhi and Terene, the two most prominent gangs from Mafeteng in Famo music today, started out as funeral schemes in the late 90s or early 2000s. Their objective was to assist their members financially in times of mourning.
However, it is unclear how the rivalry flamed up, but it turned so bad that eminent members of both associations fled into self-imposed exiles in South Africa. Terene’s leader Rethabile Chakela, also known as Mosotho Chakela and Seakhi’s two giants Bereng Mojoro (known as Lekase) and Lehlohonolo Maketsi (alias Mahlanya) ended the business with death threats fired from one side to another.
Worthy of note is the assertion that Seakhi, unlike all other gangs, has no boss. All members are equal. It is also claimed that all these other gangs namely Fito, Phula-Bobete, Tornado and Mahana-Puso are actually Terene in disguise, while Seakhi stands fearlessly in solidarity.
Other accounts reveal that killings have always occurred in the Famo community, but were never on a high rate as they are today. The bloodshed escalated to higher levels leading to the brutal shooting of the late Seakhi heavyweight, Rants’o from Thabana-Morena in 2009. Following Rantso’s death, another brutal assassination which shook Lesotho was that of Selomo in 2011. Despite his participation in negotiations for truce between the two gangs, Selomo’s life was ended in a hailstorm of bullets outside a local hotel.
It is said that in 2014, over 100 lives were reported to have been lost in in the Famo killings.
In as much as the previous government and the current government have made attempts to help end the turf wars, there however remains another angle that needs to be examined.
The rivalry between these two gangs has clawed even into the politics of Lesotho. It is on this basis that many people have alleged that Selomo’s murder was political.
Some have even claimed that the gang membership has transcended into the law enforcement institutions, thus Famo-related murder cases are never thoroughly investigated.
The banning of the music in night clubs can as well be seen as a slap on the wrist for the perpetrators of these murders.
I should point out that though that Famo music today has become irrelevant to the life of the urban man. It is only in the rural areas where the music and culture are still held in high regard. This is because most of the Famo artists have always, and still do, spring from the rural areas and thus their messages and experiences are relatable to the societies they come from. Whereas in the urbanized regions, the music has faded out not only because of the negativity associated with the killings.
It goes without saying that Famo is a diamond that got bruised along the way. Gone are the days of its golden era where peace-preachers and poetic wordsmiths such as the late Famole, the veteran Morena Mants’a, Hatlane, Lehlohonolo, to mention a few, would uplift the listeners with their wisdom, proverbs and stories of hope and analytic lyricism.
That Famo music has been banned from night-club play has put many cultural enthusiasts like me disappointed. In as much as it was an art form which raised Lesotho’s flag and epitomised our culture, Famo has become a menace to society.
It has become difficult for us as Basotho to innocently pride ourselves with our blankets, as they are associated with certain gangs and thus one would pay with their life for wearing a blanket of their choice.
As 2016 hastens towards its end and we soon shall be celebrating 50 years of independence, should we fully forget about our cultural jewel that Famo is, and accept that all good things do come to an end?
‘We lost direction in the ABC’
THE Mechechane MP, Nyapane Kaya, defected from the All Basotho Convention (ABC) to the Movement for Economic Change (MEC) contrary to the expectations that he would cross the floor with Nqosa Mahao’s new party, the Basotho Action Party (BAP). In fact, Mahao had earlier said Kaya was one of the MPs who would dump the ABC for his party. Kaya’s defection to the MEC took many by surprise. Our reporter, Margaret Katimbo, spoke to Kaya the day he joined the MEC. Below are excerpts from the interview.
What does it mean to you having to switch to the MEC?
It gives me special happiness and satisfaction, a special feeling of strength having changed parties. I joined the ABC from the very first day it was formed as a teacher, and I wasn’t even an active politician at the time. It was a vibrant party which filled people with a lot of hope. The problem, however, is that we abandoned the direction which we took with the people from the beginning after we felt cushioned.
I have to accept that the ABC has done a great deal of good things for Lesotho that I can point to but unfortunately there are times when people feel like they have reached a stage where they feel successful and the love for their nation is no longer there. I was aware that with my (ABC) party, there is no longer an interest to maintain the rhythm of working for the people. Having changed to the MEC, I feel that special kind of satisfaction because I trust that I will get the new strength to work for the people.
What attracted you to the MEC?
Well, in particular the MEC leader is one hard-working politician with vigour and a strong wish to produce results in this country. He makes and leaves a mark wherever he goes. Therefore, being close to him this much encourages me and gives me pleasure because I too am a results-oriented politician. I hope that we will work together with other politicians, not necessarily the MEC, in order to give the country the boost it needs. Even better, I worked with him in the Public Accounts Committee (PAC) where we tended to understand the underlying problem in this country. Corruption has made Lesotho what it is today so I want to align myself with people that fight against it.
By fighting against corruption, does it imply that the current government is corrupt?
There are still instances of corruption but not at the same levels as we saw during the so-called 4 x 4 government. There is some improvement on that but there are reports of corruption that we get especially when working in the PAC. There are still issues I still have to follow up with regards to allegations of corruption. There is a slight improvement I must accept.
Why did you leave Mahao for the MEC?
I must say I have always wanted to work with the MEC for a while now. It was simply a question of time. However, I still had strong alliances with Ntate Mahao’s group so much that by the time they were packing to leave the ABC it would have been thought that I would leave with them regardless of some developments which had already discouraged me. At some point, a WhatsApp group was created and my number was left out. There were other instances where I would get sidelined from meetings I knew they had.
As a matter of fact, I would learn from you reporters that they had held meetings amongst themselves without me. It is only about a week ago when they were preparing to leave the ABC, and they thought that I would leave with them but I told them No, I can’t go with you people. I told them that they had already sidelined me and that they no longer needed me. That is also when they told me the truth that the fact that I had stood for elections for the deputy speaker, it had been the decision rather conclusion in the government party’s caucus as to who would be elected deputy speaker.
However, there was a great encouragement from a number of them that I should stand which I did but little did I know that my group (that was just a small faction) within the ABC felt offended that I had stood for the post, although some had actually voted for me. So that is how and why I left them because to keep such alliances was no longer safe. My political career is now much clearer and this should be the last round in my political journey. Age also has caught up with me. However there are really no guarantees, something might arise in the future.
Bullet-proofing your online data
ROMA – Dr Makhamisa Senekane, a lecturer in the Department of Physics and Electronics at the National University of Lesotho (NUL) is assessing a new way of bullet-proofing your online information to ensure it is safe.
When you send sensitive information online, such as banking information, there is a way to hide that information from crooks.
“However,” he says, “some methods of hiding information (encryption) are very difficult to bullet-proof. That is why we are assessing a new way of bullet-proofing the security of your online experience.”
In the world of information hiding (encryption), you are sending the information from this side and your name is Alice.
And the one who receives the information on the other side is called Bob (Robert).
As far as Alice and Bob are concerned, one can sleep peacefully at night, these folks cause no problems whatsoever.
But then comes the third person called Eve (Eavesdropper, if you know what we mean?) and everything turns upside-down.
Eve is interested in getting the message that Alice is sending to Bob, so that she (Eve) can use this message for her personal gain.
That message may as well be a password you use to log into your online banking system.
If Eve is successful, you may wake up one day with all your money wiped off from your bank account in one stroke.
Now you know why the gurus, like Dr Senekane, are working day and night to make sure that that just won’t happen, if possible.
First, let’s consider one of the normal approaches which Senekane says it’s hard to prove their security.
Rest assured, we are using the simplest examples, in real life, it is more complex.
Suppose Alice is sending a number 10 to Bob on the other side of the online device.
But both know that Eve, that shady character, is waiting like a hungry shark on the route between them, to devour the information.
Hiding now begins.
The computer system generates the information called security keys.
Let’s say it gives the first key to Alice as the number 3 and the second key to Bob as the number 7.
“Prime numbers, those numbers such as 2, 3, 7, 11, 13, 17, the numbers that can only be divided by 1 or themselves, are often preferred because, as they get bigger, they are often hard to deal with,” Senekane says.
A bit of maths here but a simple one will suffice.
On the side of Alice, 10 is raised to power 3 times 7 (Remember 3 for Alice and 7 for Bob).
So 3 times 7 is 21.
So 10 is raised to power 21 which makes the number 1000000000000000000000, that is, 1 followed by 21 zeros.
When Eve the crook tries to steal the information, she comes across this ginormous number.
She is fooled because she doesn’t know that actually, that number represents 10.
When this mammoth number reaches Bob’s side of the system, Bob’s side has two advantages.
It “knows” Bob’s own key, 7, and it “knows” Alice’s key, 3.
Immediately, it can tell that there was a number which was raised to power 3 times 7—a number that was raised to power 21.
To arrive to this mammoth number (1 with 21 zeros), it can only mean that 10 was raised to power 21.
Now it is clear, Alice sent Bob the number 10!
But it appeared to Eve as a huge number she could not make sense out of.
Not so fast.
It is not difficult to see that should Eve have access to both Alice and Bob’s keys, that is 3 and 7 respectively, she doesn’t need to be a rocket scientist to realize the hidden number sent was actually 10.
“That is why we need to hide these keys also, 3 and 7 and that is the most difficult part,” Dr Senekane says.
“It is hard to prove mathematically, that Eve can’t find the keys and use them for her own benefit.”
That is why he is assessing the use of quantum physics.
In this case, another line is created between Alice and Bob to exchange keys.
But the keys are sent, not as numbers but as photons (very tiny particles that make up light).
The number of particles interpreted in the binary format, are translated to either 3 or 7 for Alice and Bob.
But here is the big trick for Eve.
Photons are quantum particles (that is enough).
When you try to measure them they become something else.
So when Eve tries to measure these particles, they lose their identity (from quantum to classical) and the Bob’s side immediately realises that Eve interfered and the whole transaction stops.
What matters, is not so much that Eve did not see the information.
It is that we can detect that she saw the information and we can stop her on her tracks.
So Dr Senekane and the team are working to ensure that the techniques used to generate these keys using quantum physics are indeed mathematically provably secure.
This is to ensure that if the techniques are implemented correctly, the only way that Eve can interfere without being detected is by violating the fundamental laws of nature; a feat that is quite impossible.
The electronic ticket
ROMA – THATO Rammoko and Mohale Molieleng, two National University of Lesotho (NUL) trained computer enthusiasts, are introducing eventspoynt, your electronic ticket to your favourite events.
It is fully paperless!
You buy your ticket online, you pay online with either M-Pesa or Ecocash or even your bank account and, listen to this one, you only bring your phone to the event!
No paper. Nothing!
Just your phone!
So you are one of those in the Born After Technology (BAT) generation who is baffled by the prevalence of paper-based tickets in the 21st century?
Or, are you, perhaps, one of those hardworking fellows who like organizing events but get frustrated when potential clients blame distance or even obscurity, of your ticket selling outlet?
Or maybe you are just a good old environmental enthusiast bewildered by the ever-declining forest resources that help keep our atmospheric greenhouse gases balanced—and you want to see paperless technology reinforced, bit by bit?
Thato Rammoko and Mohale Molieleng have a solution.
“I am a computer trained hip-hop artist,” Rammoko said in an interview.
“It turns out those double passions, computer and hip-hop, combine in him to create the product we are introducing today,” he said.
Everybody somehow knows a thing or two about Lesotho’s rising hip-hop music.
But have you heard a thing or two about the music from an insider?
Okay, listen to Rammoko relate.
“Outside my technology life, I am a hip-hop artist,” he said.
“Some people call our fast-moving music industry sotho-hop.”
In a nutshell, it is a version of hip-hop delivered in a combination of Sesotho and English or in Sesotho only.
It drives young people crazy!
But behind the vibe, pop and fanfare, there are glaring cracks.
“It is an industry that is moving fast, but with no financial rewards in the end,” said Rammoko.
‘In this industry, it is not uncommon for you to be famous, have your music played on radios, TV and all over, while you are broke.”
‘It is a survival industry!”
He added in a tone layered with determination to transform the status-quo.
Here are the problems.
Lack of proper copyright law means “you can sell just one CD for M100, and the next thing you hear your music played across the country, while you remain with that measly M100 you started with, in your pocket”.
Your CD has been copied!
So they have a strategy, they no longer make money through selling CDs.
They give them for free and then organize live events.
“But this alternative is no picnic either,” Rammoko added, holding his breath.
Fraud, fraud, fraud, is a problem here.
“When you are on a stage delivering music to your fans, you can see the hundreds and hundreds in the adoring crowd, only to receive income that clearly doesn’t correspond to the numbers.”
“It leaves you wondering, what happened there—we mean, like— at the gate?”
Oop! Eventspoynt jumps in at this point.
It is a brilliant solution, not only for hip-hop events but for all kinds of events.
Doing it is as simple as ABC.
You go online—register.
Then you choose your event, and the kind of ticket you want to buy, e.g. VIP, Goldern Circle or normal ticket.
Then you pay the given price with your M-Pesa, Ecocash or through your bank account.
During the paying process, a unique number, called order number, is generated.
This you use as a reference when you pay in any of those options.
Once they receive your payment, Eventspoynt folks confirm both by your email and by your order number and your e-ticket is sent to your email.
You can either print it (but please don’t, save the trees), or you can leave it on your phone.
When time comes for the event, you show up with your phone on hand [or your printed paper if you are the Born Before Technology (BBT)].
And here is Rammoko again: “In your e-ticket, there is a code called QR code.”
That is Quick Response two dimensional bar code, it determines if or not you will enter the event.
“We scan the code, in your electronic PDF ticket on your phone or on you printed paper. For scanning we use any phone that has a camera, as long as an app is installed there, to recognise the QR code.”
This time around, no money is exchanging hands.
Thus fraud is kept at bay.
It is stress-free for both the buyers and sellers of the tickets.
All you need to attend you favourite show is to have a phone and money in your M-Pesa account.
That is it!
It doesn’t get easier than that!
The beauty of this system is that it is versatile – all kinds of event organisers can use it as a tool.
And you can buy a ticket, while in any corner of the Mountain Kingdom, or beyond.
Eish! Those are NUL trained computer gurus for you!
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