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Habits of inspiration



Young writers often ask me the startling question: where do you get what you write about? Inspiration, I answer, looking the interlocutor in the eyes. But I know that this is not enough of an answer.
Inspiration – that ghetto blaster of a word! Is it the state of feeling like you want to crush the sky? Is it a feeling akin to wanting to go on top of a hill to shout and cry? What inspires a writer to write?

Writing comes from calculated, cultivated, measured and allowed ‘habits of the writer.’ The habits of writing poems (bad or good ones) is human and if you do not have them, there could be a thread you are missing in your fast waning writing career.
If you care to know, your very own life is one big poem or story waiting to be written. Recall the many outstanding happenings in your life, one after the other, and bring them closer to you with their dust and dirt and brood over them.

For instance, very close people have died in your life. Pick one death that occurred in the family and write lines about what it felt like to see a loved one’s casket being covered up with subsequent thudding shovel loads of red earth in the fast disappearing cloud of a June evening. You need to stop breathing and mix the earth with the waning light of day and the emotion of the moment. You will meet its equivalent in Chenjerai Hove’s ‘Death of a Soldier’:

“Sure he died, no doubt
Graveless, ditched he went
But full of grave pure hate
He dies to haunt the soulless
And to cleanse the land he
Praising the living…”

You could also consider the day you graduated into a new social phase and write about the excitement of the experience. I fondly recall the day I got my national identity card. ‘So I am old enough now,’ I sang, ‘So I can actually vote for a government,’ I raved. I actually remember waking up in the middle of the night to just gaze at the I.D. and enthuse, ‘I am a man! A man who can own goats, cattle, sheep, hens. A man who can vote!’

Or you can even decide to capture, in poetry, that sweet – painful moment in your life at discovering that your once bare pubic area was now growing brilliant little black hairs! You remember how many times you rushed to the boys’ toilet just to gaze at that little bush? Indeed, one’s life can be one’s raw material. You only need to be simple and truthful to whatever emotion you intend to mine and relive. You can pick on all these moments and their varied emotions; your first love, your first job, the day that you received your first love letter from a boy, the day you paid lobola, your first day in the city, the day you tried to ride a bike, the day…

There is another ‘genre’ of inspiration that you might find even more interesting. These are ‘farcical’ activities that you catch occurring even in as short a time as five seconds and they cause sparks of thoughts and messages (lines) in you.

You are in a fast moving bus towards your home town and as you cross the last river bridge, you see people bathing naked on the river bed, yelling at the bus and diving into the water to hide their brilliant nakedness which you have already seen! Such a short sharp experience could kick start you into writing a poem. You could capture the mischievous child-like ‘things’ returning to the source. A raw revelation.

A poem can arise out of seeing a baboon sitting majestically, on a peak, in the morning. One ends up writing the classical ‘Bongwi the baboon,’ by Kingsley Fairbridge, which everyone who went to school in the 1970s could not fail to identify with.
You can imagine the singular incident of seeing a bird in the sky in 1877 that made Gerard Hopkins write:

“I caught this morning morning’s minion,
king-dom of daylight’s dauphin,
dapple-dawn-drawn Falcon,
in his riding
Of the rolling level underneath him steady air,
and striding
High there, how he rung upon
the rein of a wimpling wing
In his ecstasy! then off,
off forth on swing…”

Imagine what Shakespeare was going through or had seen or heard or dreamt, for him to write that alluring sonnet that says, “To me, my friend, you can never be old….”
Even casual statements made by people as they go about their daily business can start trains of thought whose resting-place can be a short story. Statements that people casually utter could inspire whole novels.

Once upon a time, I stumbled onto two ‘learned’ chaps exchanging words, and at the height of it, one of them said to the other, ‘I am not your friend, my friend.’ There I was! A paradoxical statement which I lived to celebrate. Later, I wrote a poem about the fiery competitions which genuine friends engage in sometimes.

Statements, commands, reprimands, sermons and even working chants that you hear on the spur of the moment can be powerful enough to move you. They ignite in the poet other half buried, half-realised poetic lines. Poets need to keep their ears open even in the hubbub of the railway station or a busy dip tank yard. You will definitely agree with me that Shaka’s utterances during his assassination: “The swallows have won and you will not rule this land!” have inspired many novels, plays and poems in Kwa Zulu Natal and beyond.

If you nurture the habit, you reach a point where you begin to pick powerful statements, unconsciously, only to have them come forward when your head hits the pillow at the end of a busy day. The statements recur as echoes and when you pick your pen, you trace a path in the long dark passage of blank paper and write lines that read as well thought out as a prosecutor’s court narrative. Try it.

You could also use the landscape to give you material for poems. If you go up a hill and look down into the valley, allow yourself to be wooed, to be an insect ‘pinned and sprawling on a pin.’ You could come up with, as in the

case of Malawian poet, Antony Nazombe:
“Circles of hills
Like possessed dances
Riding the ecstasy
Of drums.”

Or, like G.W. Manzini you can go:
“Below and above
Something is unknown
Below and above
Is a multitude of creation
My thought wanders
Gathering the laurels
The intermediate I
Below and above
In this effulgence…”

In my own case, it is/was the relations between me and the range of mountains (Mavhuradonha) in my home area that produced a series of poems that became my first publication.

You see, those mountains are mischievous and ambivalent too. If I was herding cattle and the grass was green and I felt good and sang a little song, the hills would look like they were excited too. But if a heifer or a cow strayed away and I ran around looking for it in great desperation, I felt that the hills were sad and crying with me, too. To this day, those mountains have a way of reflecting my emotions. This is an experience that has stayed with me and in that meandering poem, I tried (I think) to get to the bottom of that relationship with the mountains. I feel better now, I think.

On the same note, I feel pricked by the shadowy kopjes along the main road between Rusape and Nyanga. I have often wandered, sitting on the bus, how people of that area manage to survive amidst such breath-taking beauty.

When I saw Walvis Bay in Namibia for the first time, I cried out loudly as if I were taking a cold shower in May? Watching that city as it sprawled towards the sea, I thought the world had come down and the stars were right on the ground!

Or, after sojourning through the hilly Mwanza District on your way to Blantyre from Mozambique, don’t you feel like wailing when you suddenly get to the endless flatness and straightness of the pencil-like road to Blantyre? Landscapes have many poems to give; only you don’t see with your eyes and listen with your ears!
Then there is music! The everyday songs we hear. You could have realised by now, that some lines of a song can generate an emotion in you that needs describing. At a party you see a friend, in the throes of music, with an ear glued against a full-volume radio speaker, singing along, drunkenly, of course. Music.

If they are not the words in a song, maybe it could be the combinations of instruments that draw pictures on your mind. In my case, Hugh Masekela’s horn makes me want to write a poem about this new big mad bull that is always jumping over the cattle-pen, going after the neighbour’s cows until you begin to notice a breed of calves with speckled foreheads in the neighbourhood.

There is an old fellow in my village who cries real tears when he hears Oliver Mutukudzi’s old song called Amai ndiri bofu’ (Mother I am too blind to the ways of the world). If you were that fellow in my village, what poem would you write? About groping in this darkness called life? In July 2002, Zimbabwean poet, Musaemura Zimunya told me (in an ordinary conversation) that nothing is more delicious than listening to mbira out in the countryside, particularly at dawn. He said that the extreme silence of a dewy dawn, gives mbira (and the accompanying rattles) that sound akin to river water falling from a very high ledge. It immediately occurred to me that Zimunya must have written about this spectral experience, somewhere. You also need to read other writers in order to be a real writer! You will recall Marechera saying,How can you write as if you have never read?’ Indeed, how can you?

It is when you go over and over other people’s verses and stanzas that the storm seizes you too. It can be contagious like some shameful disease. There is what is called, by technical people, Apprenticeship. You begin like someone you admire then, subsequently, and inevitably, fall into your own groove and swing.
My first contact with Achebe’s Okonkwo was like a road-to-Damascus experience. Here it is:

“Okonkwo was well known throughout the nine villages and even beyond. His fame rested on solid personal achievements…”
The contagion does not really happen immediately. It is like receiving a fairly old garment from a beloved elder brother. It comes when least expected.

One evening after a satisfactory meal, I made a big mistake. I picked Edward Braithewaite’s The Arrivants, thinking – he will help me to go to sleep. The section called ‘Right of passage’ proved an ordinary bumpy ride. ‘Masks’ was something else. ‘Islands’ is spiritual and riddled with eddies. The bug got me and I pulled out Braithewaite’s other book of poems – Mother Poem.

It was a bigger mistake! The lines, with their staccato style, produced echoes in my ears. All the people I have known in my life merged and began to shout and cheer at me as if I was on the track, running the race of my life. I dropped the book and started writing a long poem about echoes speaking back to echoes and got lost in the din. When I stopped, it was well over two in the morning! Echoes.

Yes, you need to read other poets. Who do you think you are? Preachers get better through listening to other preachers’ sermons. Boys who become great footballers keenly observe the great stars from the way they tie their boots to the way they lazily run onto the pitch. Boy footballers watch all these antics of beloved great stars until they get to know about how not to take a spot kick, how to shoot whilst in flight, how to feign injury… It is like following a river until you reach the sea.

My reading of Braithewaite, a Caribbean poet, taught me to manage echoes and eddies. Mordekai Hamutyinei taught me to play with words the way boys spin coins in the back yards. Thomas Hardy taught me to transpose experience. Charles Mungoshi taught me to ambush an image and approach the subject of a poem as if one is going up a steep slope. Chenjerai Hove taught me to cook an emotion until you begin to see tears on the paper on which the poem is printed. You gather here a trick and there a hint from more experienced poets.

Southern Africa has many good and great poets. You sit in a library, gazing at the many varied books and your eyes land on the poetry anthologies and a bell rings questions in the ears of your mind: Just where do poets get what they write about? Dreams, maybe? But then, does every poet dream poetic dreams every time he goes to bed? Miriam Makeba, Oliver Mtukudzi, Flora Nwapa, Denis Brutus, Musaemura Zimunya, Jack Mapanje… how do they…

Memory Chirere

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Harnessing imagery in writing



All writing is imaginative. Every piece of writing reflects the artistry and mental resourcefulness of the writer.

Effective writing also reflects the colourfulness of the writer’s mind and heart; their ability to paint the world to the reader and their capacity or facility of taking the reader with them to beautiful mental and physical and picturesque journeys.

In this piece we focus on how we can hone our creative abilities through the use of imagery and the effect of using colourful and evocative imagery in writing. Let’s go! What if I say, “Learn to prepare wisely and meticulously in time,” you will still grasp the message in a very clear way, isn’t it? But would that be interesting and colourful?

But what if we put it in a colourful manner, “Make hay whilst the sun still shines,” you really grasp the colour and the full import of the message, isn’t it? That’s what imagery does to your writing; it allows you to feel, touch and smell what you are reading.

There is no doubt that the proverb, “make hay whilst the sun still shines” has taken you to the countryside, in a farming community. You hear the bleating of sheep and the neighing of horses.

At the same time, you visualise the good farmer gracefully at work, cutting grass which he is piling in orderly stacks, preparing fodder for his animals in the future. The sun’s rays buoy his attempts and ensure that the hay is prepared with care and colour.

Thus, the point of good imagery is to capture in full detail a world that allows the reader to grasp and enjoy using their five senses. Let me give you a small but beautiful extract which further drives home the point.

“With his machete he detached a brittle clod, broke it on a stone. It was full of dead twigs and the residue of dried roots that he crushed in his fingers.

“Look, there isn’t anything left. The water has dried up in the very entrails of the mountain. It’s not worth while looking any further. It’s useless.” Then, with sudden anger, “But why, damn it! Did you cut the woods down, the oaks, the mahogany trees, and everything that grow up there? Stupid people with no sense!”

Thando struggled for a moment to find words. “What else could we do, brother? We cleared it to get new wood. We cut it down for framework and beams for our hearts. We repaired the fences around our fields. We didn’t know ourselves. Ignorance and need go together, don’t they?”

The sun scratched the scorched back of the mountain with its shining fingernails. Along the dry ravine the earth panted. The countryside, baked in drought, began to sizzle.”

What a colourful piece! The extract aptly paints a countryside’s pulse and the rhythms of seasonal and climate change and how that affects the livelihood patterns of the inhabitants. Have you seen how the sun has been endowed with human-like features?

And the description of the earth assuming human-like features, for instance, “the earth panted.” No doubt, you have seen the earth subdued by the intensity of heat in a way that is similar to a person who is panting.

To paint excellent images the writer needs to have the gift of observation. He/she should be able to observe quite a panorama of things around him and immerse them in the soil of their imagination. Let’s see another good extract where you can discern the link between good images, excellent description and the power of observation.

“It’s in the morning, the fourth watch, to borrow from biblical discourse. It’s damp outside. I brace the slicing chilly weather to go outside. There is a drizzle, constant showers seeping deep down. I pace up at least 400 metres from my hood. I see lined-up, almost cubicle-like houses.

I keep walking, with a spring in the step buoyed by the damp aura wrought by the incessant downpours. I take a deep breath, and step back as it were.

I want to be deliberate. I want to take in everything in my environment; the colours, the diverse hues and plethora of landscape contours. I notice a woman, almost in her forties, from my eye-view assumptions. She is grabbing a basket clutched tenaciously almost close to her big bosom.

She is going to Mbare Musika, the famous agricultural market wherein she intends to buy items for her stall. Behind her, there is a big strapped baby covered in velvet. As she briskly walks, I see her jumping a poodle of water as she observes her stall. I also observe a man, clad in sportswear running trying to cure a big belly.

As I keep watching, I see a woman sweeping her small veranda. I keep walking. I see a woman, plump tending to her garden. She seems animated by the drizzle, thanks to the rains.

I hear another woman, especially her piercing voice, she is selling floor polish. Her voice fills the air. As I drown in the sweet voice, I notice a man staggering. He is filthy. He could have calloused the whole night. He is holding a Black Label quart, speaking gibberish in the air. I keep watching.”

So here were are! Writing is a matter of painting with words, carving images and allowing the reader to experience the impact of all the senses so as to fully grasp the sense of what is put across.

Vuso Mhlanga teaches at the University of Zimbabwe. For almost a decade and half he taught English language and Literature in English at high school.

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Politicians’ propensity to score own goals



Lesotho politicians are often in the habit of scoring own goals. For example, look at the circus that took place in the country at the opening of parliament after the winter break. These events remind me of the article that I wrote with the title ‘Scoring own goals’.

This article appeared in this publication dated March 18 – 24, 2021. It argued that Lesotho’s politicians had a propensity to score own goals.

Many say that education and academia should not involve themselves in politics. This belief is a fallacy. The two are intrinsically intertwined. Education and politics link in a complex way.

For instance, parliament is an organ that passes laws that govern and guide national education policies. The interconnectedness includes the curricula that educational institutions and schools teach. Now, if the National Assembly’s focus is misplaced, important legislative decisions may stall or be derailed by lack of action.

I must make a disclaimer though. I am not promoting any view about a political party. I am writing this article purely as a concerned citizen.

I revisit the own goal tendency of those in authority by assessing the drama that unfolded in politics and governance. I review the recent events that culminated in the failed vote of no confidence against Prime Minister Sam Matekane and his government.

I use arguments from research to demonstrate the fluidity of Lesotho’s democracy. Some politicians often take advantage of this fluidity for selfish gain. I contest that the Prime Minister and his government should treat their adversities as stepping stones to meeting their targets.

A constitution is a living document. Accordingly, to keep Lesotho’s constitution alive, current and relevant, parliament should regularly amend it.

However, in so doing, parliament must be careful that tinkering with the country’s constitution does not compromise the essence of democracy they champion. National and democratic principles must form the dogma that underpins the improvements and amendment exercises.

Personal aspirations, ambitions and creed must not underpin the amendments.

The recent events in and out of the National Assembly make one question the perceptions of the different roles players in the democratic playground in Lesotho have.

First, there was a vote of no confidence that the Speaker ruled to defer subject to the high court’s decision.

Second, there was the allegedly drunken MP’s own goal.

The third is the press conference led by the Commissioner of the Lesotho Mounted Police Services flanked by the head of the Lesotho Defence Force and the Director General of the National Security Services.

It is already a hat trick of own goals. Fourth, there was the statement of the Prime Minister claiming an attempted coup.

The fifth own goal is the moratorium that prevented parliament from holding a vote of no confidence against the Prime Minister before the lapse of three years of his inauguration.

The sixth is the practice of shirking responsibility by MPs. MPs often refer political matters to the national courts for decisions. The seventh, and the mother of all own goals, is the electoral system that Lesotho elected to pursue. The National Assembly has 120 MPs. There are 80 MPs representing constituencies and 40 proportional representatives.

The Commonwealth suggested that Lesotho review the modalities of the PR nominations. Sekatle and the Commonwealth agree that the PR system introduced plurality but at a cost. The cost is what scholars and commentators term minority rights and coalitions.

Also, it compromises accountability and transparency. It undermines the collective intelligence of the voters. Chief Jonathan warned against coalition governments by citing their instability. Political instability plagues Lesotho today.
Sekatle and the Commonwealth cited the overreliance on a threshold in awarding PR seats in parliament, cheapening them.

The PR system ballooned parliament unnecessarily. By comparison, Botswana had a population of 2.6 million in (2021). Lesotho had 2.3 million (2021). Botswana parliament currently has 65 seats, and Lesotho has 120.

A consequence emanating from the PR system in Lesotho is a hung parliament. Since 2012, there has not been an outright majority in the National Assembly. The results yielded chaos. Over that period, PMs constantly look over their shoulders. All these coalitions imploded.

Democracy is about the majority. Politicians must be persuasive to attract votes to achieve the majority. In other words, the PR system rewards failure.

The own goals cause stagnation. MPs score these own goals by serving their selfish interests. They waste time and energy on trivial things. And yet, they receive full-time salaries and earn allowances such as sittings and petrol allowances. How, then, would one explain that the external urging of parliament had to engage in the reforms exercise?

Today, reforms are lying latent. Politicians use the reform programme as an excuse for ensuring that they retain or access power. In the recent correspondences to SADC, the government and the opposition cite reforms and democracy to justify their actions. But as I write this article, there is nothing much that is happening along the lines of these very reforms. Why?

The starting point of any achievement is desire and definitiveness of purpose. The definitiveness of purpose is more than goal setting. It is one’s roadmap to achieving the overall objectives. Elsewhere, I took the definition of desire as explained by the author, Wallace Wattles.

According to Wattles, ‘Desire is possibility seeking expression, or function seeking performance’. All desires began as a thought. Expressing their desires through a manifesto is a means by which parties attempt to concretise them (their desires).

The starting point of an election campaign is the expression of political intentions and goals through manifestos. A manifesto is a public declaration of aims and policy by a political party or candidate. Political parties express their desires for what they will do in their manifestos.

After elections, these desires become the guiding principles and laws. Politically mature voters would then elect political candidates based on these manifestos.

Who instigated and drove the reforms in Lesotho? The contemporary history of Lesotho reveals that external forces pushed the reforms. Basotho merely reacted. They do not own the reform process. High on the list of their drivers are SADC, the US through AGOA and the European Union.

The practice contradicts Wattles’ definition. According to Wattles definition, desire must emanate from inside the individual, or in our case, from Basotho and be expressed outward through actions.

I do not want to comment too much about the involvement of the security agencies in politics. In my view, the relevant bodies, namely, the Law Society of Lesotho, the media and the opposition parties dealt with their involvement adequately.

Former PM Leabua Jonathan often described democracy as the government of the people by the people. But, the meaning of the construct of democracy is fluid and elusive, depending on the position of governance in Lesotho’s political arena.

Authors Hughes, Kroehler and Vander Zanden explain that democracy is a system in which the powers of government derive from the consent of the governed, namely the masses who vote, in which regular constitutional avenues exist for changing government officials.

The authors characterise the system as one which permits the population a significant voice in decision-making through the people’s right to choose among contenders for political office. Also, the system allows for a broad, relatively equal citizenship among the populace.

Lastly, it affords the citizenry protection from arbitrary state action.

Now, the question is whether the recent activities fit all the three criterias. Are the actions of the MPs who moved for the vote of no confidence in the PM’s government acting in line with Lesotho’s constitution and democracy?

This definition of democracy says that regular constitutional avenues exist for changing government officials. The no confidence vote exists in Lesotho’s constitution. But the PM and his security agencies questioned this. They claim the move by the members of the opposition to dethrone the government was a coup attempt.

The drama began when an MP from the ruling Revolution for Prosperity (RFP), Thabo Moea MP, sought an order from the High Court to delay the motion of no confidence against the Prime Minister until after the completion of the reforms process.

The opposition contests that the prayer by Moea stifles a democratic process for self-serving ends. Subsequently, the Speaker cited this impending case to defer the matter.

The constitution of Lesotho stipulates that the legislature is to pass laws, the executive is to approve and execute them, and the judiciary is to expound and enforce them. But a scholar, Nwafor, claims that the courts in Lesotho often intrude into the functions of the other arms of government.

Lesotho ‘s constitution confers powers on three arms of government in such a manner as would ensure cooperation and coordination in governance. The courts ought to bear in mind that the effective discharge of the responsibilities of the courts largely depends on the effectiveness of the other arms of government.

Nwafor brings up the issue of encroachment. He asserts that the powers of the different arms of government in such a manner would guarantee a coordinated discharge of government responsibilities to the nation. But, parliament overly relies on the courts to make political decisions. The practice encourages the risk of overreaching.

The PR electoral system denies Basotho the right to choose their representatives among contenders for political office. Instead, parties ‘hand pick’ these representatives in the pretext of the constituency elections outcomes. Often, these PR members are the ones who lost their constituency elections.

These are the politicians whose constituencies rejected them. They represent their parties and not the voters. They do not account to the voters.

Both the PM and the opposition made presentations to SADC. They overlooked the electorate. Why would SADC have power and not the electorate that elected the politicians to office? Running to SADC, an outside organisation, to settle Lesotho’s internal problems is not a solution. It is scoring an own goal. Lesotho, with its 57 years of independence, should be able to solve its internal problems.

Nonetheless, I have a completely different take from Mokhothu on the issue of the protest march by the RFP. It is unimportant to find the instigator of the protest march. The people to persuade are the voters, the people who put governments into power in a democracy, not external bodies such as SADC.

Napoleon Hill’s creed reads: ‘Every adversity brings a seed of equivalent or more benefit’. Any business person knows that business is a solution to an economic problem. So, the PM and his colleagues in his party who are business people must look at the adversity emanating from the opposition as a seed of equivalent or better benefit.

The government must dig deep to find how the problem may benefit them.
They must identify their failures and use them as stepping stones to success.

Elsewhere, I presented the views of an American scholar and activist, Anderson, who suggested that marginalised communities must cease granting candidates blank cheques. Instead, the electorate must draw their expectations and demand the campaigning party or candidate promise to meet them.

This practice is called quid pro quo. It enforces accountability and transparency.

You scratch my back, and I scratch yours. Quid pro quo is an example of one of the universal laws that demonstrate reciprocity. Reciprocity is the practice of exchanging things with others for mutual benefit. The universal law is the Law of Cause and Effect. It means that for every effect, there is an equal cause. You plant a seed, so shall you reap.

Both the government and the opposition ran to SADC for help. Remember, Matekane is a successful businessman. He has, on more than one occasion, explained that he wanted to use his prowess in business to take Lesotho forward. As a businessman, Matekane has faith in his ability.

Words that come to mind here include self-confidence and trust in himself. He believes in himself. Running to SADC does not display this faith in his ability to deal with problems emanating from his opposition.

Hill argues that riches, or any form of success and achievement, begin with a thought. Faith removes limitations. Matekane must apply his faith as a businessman to become a successful politician.

To summarise, the article explores the events emanating from the fiasco of the no-confidence motion. The individuals who ought to champion constitutional democracy in Lesotho betrayed Basotho by scoring hordes of own goals.

I explored the meaning of concepts that helped me unpack some of these own goals. These were democracy, faith and desire. Also, I coupled these with scholarly research views on the constitution of Lesotho.

I contest that while the opposition may argue that they are within their rights to ruffle the government, the PM must use different tactics. He must display faith and confidence in himself and trust Basotho.

The move to influence the voters to back him deserves a big WOW! He must hold more campaigns to persuade voters to support his government. Voters may make or break him.

MPs waste time in discussing trivial issues that have no bearing on the national agenda. Often, they focus on self-serving matters. The RFP promised to refocus Lesotho towards national development and improving the quality of life.

The article also shows that the PR system does not benefit Lesotho. It diminishes accountability and the principle of quid pro quo. Also, it ballooned the numbers in parliament unnecessarily. It increased political instability by forging formations of coalition.

Politicians must refrain from abusing the judiciary by making them make political decisions. Involving the courts in making political decisions leads to encroachment. Encroachment defies democracy.

In conclusion, Matekane must not allow his detractors to derail his mandate. The same is true for the opposition leaders who attempt to dethrone him. No party campaigned on removing sitting PMs.

Also, the MPs must take the responsibilities that Basotho entrusted them with. It is high time that they make the political decisions instead of shifting them to the judiciary or external bodies.

Matekane, his business associates and technocrats in his government should revisit attributes that made them successful. One such attribute is their faith in their abilities. They must remember that riches (and success) begin with a thought, and faith removes limitations.

Dr Tholang Maqutu


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Painting mood effectively



Writing is not different from beautiful artwork. Just like a skilled painter holding a brush with its broad strokes, the writer occupies the same place and vocation in life. Writing is a work of painting life’s experiences, its hues and beautiful unfolding internal journeys. In this piece we focus on mood and how it can be achieved. Many students struggle with understanding and contemplating the scope and ambit of mood in writing.
It is hard to define and frame the scope of mood in writing. What really constitutes mood? Generally, mood encapsulates the totality of the “air” or “spirit” or “aura” that a certain work of art evokes in the human mind, feeling or sensibility. There is a certain dominant feature or streak associated with a certain work of art, place or person.

There is something which is evoked in our hearts which is associated with a certain place, person or event. Every place or event or person carries or imbues with him or her a certain mood or sensibility; and there is a panorama of sensibilities; for instance, a happy or sombre or whimsical mood. We will now focus on a certain extract and discern how it paints mood.

“He quickly rights himself and keeps walking, but there is an unsteadiness to his knees. He has been given many looks in this quarter – dirty ones, blank ones, sympathetic ones, annoyed ones. For the most part, he had learned to tolerate those than can be tolerated, and ignore those that should be ignored, but the look this woman gave him is not a look one gives to humans but to flies, ticks, cockroaches, fleas…Thato feels anger, then humiliation, then something nameless. If he were in his own country he would turn and confront the woman; but now he’s hurt, wounded, a part of him wishing he were invisible. Breathing evenly, he walks with care, only lifting his eyes once he reaches his own quarters, among his own people. He proceeds to his shack. He could stop by Thapelo’s, his neighbour, where he knows that men and women are already congregated to watch videos from home. Yet, no matter the promise of good fellowship and laughter, Thabo does not join them. Watching videos is a form of forgetting; the 2008 elections, the police with batons, the soldiers with guns, the militia with machetes. Do you remember? Limbs broken. Roofs blazing. I remember.”

This extract is characterised by the intensity of feeling and evokes feelings of sadness, despair and pain. The excerpt paints a harrowing and blood-curdling account which produces a sombre, dull and subdued mood. Thato, the protagonist in the story is in a foreign land. He was impelled to leave his country as a result of political violence which saw many people lose limbs and lives. He feels lonely and unwanted in the foreign land. He feels lost and alienated.

There are sentiments of xenophobia expressed through the glances of citizens of the foreign country he is in. Even if he were to entertain himself together with his countrymen residing in that foreign land, Thato still felt a deep and nagging feeling of being an outcast. Thus, we have made very deep and broad descriptions of the circumstances in which the protagonist finds himself with a view to demonstrate how mood is created in a narrative. The creation of mood feeds into the description of the character’s circumstances, his mindset and the space and place in which he finds himself.

Mood, as we have demonstrated from the portrayal of Thato’s experience, has a link with pathos. Pathos is that streak of sadness which pervades a story and creates empathy in the reader. The aim of effective writing is to move the reader and to impel him towards certain sensibilities which are of an affective kind. Mood, when effectively created, allows the reader to grasp meaning which is not directly said in the story or composition.

Meaning in a story is an interaction between the words in a text as read together with the effect of the words, the tone used and the created mood. There are certain words in a text which do not just communicate, but etches in the reader’s mind certain thoughts, viewpoints and feelings. These words would be so evocative. One such word describes Thato’s deepest sense of alienation in the extract given above.

The word describes him as nursing a wish of invisibility, he felt or wished he were ‘invisible.’ His wish for invisibility is of great importance. It portrays how he was deeply affected by the loathing expressed in the eyes of those looking at him with hate and disdain.

So, here we are! Creating a mood is a craft which takes time to acquire and hone. But when achieved, it makes effective reading and allows the reader to get meaning which goes beyond the text.

Vuso Mhlanga teaches at the University of Zimbabwe. For almost a decade and half he taught English language and Literature in English at high school. Send your comments and questions to:

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