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Is the Council of State a ‘white elephant’?



Recent developments in the country have prompted serious debate amongst politicians, legal scholars and ordinary citizens alike over the role and powers of the Council of State.
I shall strive to argue that the relevant constitutional organ is nothing but a white elephant especially in a setting where its role is that of ‘advising’ a constitutional monarch.
I shall deliberately avoid a mundane approach of engaging in political debates nor attempt to act like a tony intellectual who is well-versed in the dynamics of constitutional law jurisprudence and its dynamics.

Mine will be a limited attempt to present practical challenges which are presented by a body which is modelled around the Westminster type of governance model in a tiny African country like Lesotho whose evolution of institutional democracy is in its somewhat nascent stages as compared to Britain.
The turning point in the debate centres around the powers of His Majesty the King vis-à-vis the Prime Minister.

The country’s constitution is modelled in such a manner that the King is relegated to a ceremonial figurehead with no real and substantial executive powers.
The large proportion of constitutional powers if not all are vested in the Prime Minister and there is a very controversial provision in the constitution which provides that in the event of the King declining to act in accordance with the advice of the Prime Minister, the latter is at large to act on his own motion and such an act would be deemed to be that of the Head of State.

Perhaps even more poignantly, there is yet another constitutional provision which provides that if the King were required to act on the advice of the Council of State and fails to do so, the relevant organ may itself do the act and that act would be deemed to have been done by the King.

This latter constitutional provision presents a complex legal problem: Can the Council of State overrule the advice rendered to the King by the Prime Minister when the latter is himself a member of the relevant body and alternate chairperson in the absence of the King?

The recent developments in Lesotho’s constitutional law jurisprudence yielded a very sensitive but very relevant question which had been indirectly canvassed by politicians of whether Lesotho still needs to have a monarchy and whether it would not be in the best interests of the country if Lesotho transitions into a republic with the eventual abolishment of the institution of the monarchy and the entire royal aristocracy.

This would be a convenient solution for the politicians because theirs is a perception which can be safely categorised as “self-entitlement” to the extent that they attach a great value to the ballots and their electivity.

Their view is that a legitimate government derives from the mandate given by the electorate and they contrast their mandate to that of the monarchy which asserts itself from traditional forms of institutional power which manifests itself by right of birth.

In essence, the real fight has always been about the respective institutions’ contest for power.
There are those who favour the view that the Head of State should be one who is elected by the people not the one who assumes the reins by traditional institutions of royal aristocracy which transitions and evolves by virtue of birth.

One of the most powerful factors that count as a justification for the retention of the royal aristocracy was a somewhat ideological and romantic view that Basotho genuinely love the traditional institution of royal aristocracy and would resist any political revolution that compromises the role of the King and or the royal aristocracy as a whole.
Whether or not this is true, is something that can only be assessed through scientific evidence perhaps by way of a referendum.

But even then the real issue that needs to be debated and of which there has to be an engagement is whether the political elites who directly challenge the authority are doing that as an end of addressing an issue of public discourse or merely pushing self-serving ends.

Political power is the prime motivation behind the fragile relationship between political elites and the monarchy and Lesotho’s history bears witness to this factor.
With all those observations and daunting questions in mind I should be quick to throw the gauntlet by suggesting that the Council of State is one of the few constitutional institutions that are institutionally dominated by lawyers with a total of no less than four law graduates making up this entity.

It needs to be remembered that the chairperson of the Council of State, the King himself, has legal qualifications and he is flanked by the Attorney General, the Law Society candidate, the two puisne judges and by sheer coincidence, the current speaker of the National Assembly who is also a legally qualified public servant.

In hindsight, it is perhaps enlightening to note that the recent decision of the High Court sitting as a constitutional panel was a milestone moment in Lesotho’s constitutional law jurisprudence because it sought to define the limits of the exercise of the Speaker’s powers as an administrative head of the National Assembly.

Whether these “lawyers” have had a chance to realise and perhaps analyse the limits of power of this institution vis-à-vis those of the executive is a question that can best be answered by themselves in their respective individual capacities.

The Attorney General is evidently the most powerful member of this institution in his own right because of all the members of the Council of State he is the only one who sits in all three branches of government unhindered and sanctioned by the law.

He sits in cabinet meetings and effectively becomes privy to the formal discourses of the executive.
He also plays an instrumental role in the Judicial Services Commission (yet another very important constitutional institution) and plays a part in the appointment of judicial officers and he is also an ex officio member of the legislature.

The attorney general’s office has the sanction of the law and the office bearer of such a post has the potential to navigate between the institutions dominated by legal professionals and those dominated by politicians a very rare scenario that consolidates his personal bureaucratic power and the institutional power of the office of Attorney General.

How else in this constitutional setting can the Attorney General be enjoined to give and render transparent and independent professional legal advice when he is circumstantially inclined to lend an ear to policy considerations spearheaded by the executive (politicians) before advising the Head of State — His Majesty the King?

Of what value is the engagement of the Law Society in the political affairs of the state when the enabling Act that establishes it has the prime objective of exclusively serving the purpose of professional training and development of lawyers in private practice?

Is it not compromising the professional mandate of the organization by portraying the relevant member appointed by the Law Society as a political activist than a legal professional?
Yet another skewed aspect is the fact that two puisne judges form part of the Council of State — one may otherwise suggest that it is clearly against the spirit of separation of powers if sitting judges can engage with politicians in the Council of State.

What would be the implications of their advice that runs against the desired end of the Prime Minister? Any opposition to the policy suggested by the government could very well be seen to be an opposition not only in the literal sense but also in the institutional sense.

I am therefore inclined to suggest that appointment and engagement of sitting judges in the Council of State was clearly not a wise decision — the inverse would only be beneficial if it were “retired” judges.

The engagement of sitting judges in a politically charged institution like the Council of State compromises the institution of the judiciary.
In order to address the scope of this institution’s power one would have to evaluate the manner in which its “advice” is rendered to the King and whether this “advice” can overshadow that of the Prime Minister in his capacity as head of government. Quite ironically, the Council of State does not have any rules of engagement or formal guidelines which prescribe the procedure to be followed in the arrival of what constitutes ‘advice’ and this is one of the most glaring features of most institutions which are direct creatures of the constitution.

The impeachment tribunal (the convening of which the Prime Minister plays an instrumental role) for removal of judges is but one example. Is it practically feasible for the Prime Minister to render any ‘advice’ which is in conflict with the majority of the membership of Council of State? Can government bureaucrats who are constituents of the institution motivate an advice that runs contrary to the government’s policy?

To put it bluntly, can the commander of the Lesotho Defence Force and the Commissioner of Police in their respective capacities as members directly challenge the stance held by the Prime Minister? What would be the practical implications of that endeavour?

These questions are being raised to illustrate that the advice rendered by the Council of State is riddled with some practical bottlenecks. Recent developments on the political stage have clearly magnified its practical shortcomings. The politicians seemed to have harboured the view that the lobbying of some members of the Council of State to motivate the desired end of a particular political faction would be beneficial but this approach was clearly ill-conceived because the decision-making process of the Council of State is not done by way of votes or through the conventional democratic process – it is done by consensus and even then the discretion to take that advice lies in the chairperson (the King).

And even then, his exercise of discretion in the evaluation of what that advice amounts to has to be weighed against him being a constitutional monarch constrained by the constitutional limits of his powers particularly where those powers are at odds with the incumbent Prime Minister.

Yet another feature which perhaps requires interrogation has to do with the criteria employed in the appointment of other ordinary members. The appointment of other members with the exception of those who are products of formal institutions is perhaps purely the discretion of the chairman of the Council of State. But even then the criteria and or qualifications (if any) that one should meet are not spelt out.

I have sought to clearly motivate my view that the Council of State is a white elephant and I shall ultimately conclude that one of the issues that requires careful interrogation and debate is not necessarily that of the limitation of the power of the Prime Minister but also that of whether the institution of the monarchy and the royal aristocracy can be modelled absent the institution of council of state.

But even more importantly, the debate of the role of the monarchy and whether it still has a place in our democratic setting has to be interrogated irrespective of how sensitive it may be. On the same score, the constitutional powers of an incumbent Prime Minister also need to be subjected to scrutiny as a measure of control in the exercise of the head of government’s powers.

I am further forced to conclude that any constitutional reforms exclusively narrowed down to institutional reforms alone will not efficiently address the core issues. The integrity and dignity of the constituents of public institutions and or office bearers is also a factor that both electorates and policy-makers should evaluate in their assessment of a better constitutional model to follow.

*Monaheng Rasekoai is a former member of the Council of State and ex-president of the Law Society of Lesotho

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Who will speak on behalf of Basotho?



A clash was reported to have taken place a few weeks ago between police officers, on the one hand, and an MP and his bodyguards, on the other, was always inevitable. It is a direct result of arrangements where people we have lent power to represent us in Parliament now use that power to come up with schemes by which they and their bodyguards should be exempted from equal treatment, and be treated differently from the rest us.

This conduct is anti-seMohlomi, and anti-seMoshoeshoe. And so are many other behaviours we have seen perpetrated by our MPs.

We can expect that those who behave this way will not stop at violation of road traffic laws but will go on to carry contraband in ‘MP’ registered vehicles, and claim exemption from police searches when confronted by the police.
The principle of ‘equality before the law’, and the principle that we should all be treated the same, is a fundamental requirement for the maintenance of social order. MPs who ignore, or violate, it are sources of social disorder. Such MPs have to be regarded as enemies of social order in Lesotho. They should bear in mind that they are opposing society when they oppose the police’s attempts to enforce the law.

We should all obey traffic laws. And, we should all stand in long queues for poor services at the Passport and Traffic Offices. Otherwise, if those we have voted into power use that power to exempt themselves and their bodyguards from poor public services, MPs will have no incentive and interest to work for improved quality of public service.
The failure by MPs and governments to address problems of poor public services is an important reason why everyday many Basotho cross into South Africa in search of better education, better medical services, and lower prices of basic necessities. That traffic includes cars which bear red registration numbers ferrying Lesotho public officials to South Africa for better services.

As always, MPs, Ministers, and other public servants will probably be exempted, or expect to be exempted, from the torment that comes with the new customs regime agreed by Revenue Services (SARS) and Revenue Services Lesotho (RSL), and implemented at RSA-Lesotho border posts. Exemption of officials and MPs will mean that they will have no interest, nor incentive, to lessen its toll on Basotho.
The new regime started early in August 2023. To educate travellers about it, the RSL staff at the Maseru border have been giving people leaflets that explain the new procedures.

Even before this new regime, and others that came before it, many people have always been suspicious that a lot of what people who enter Lesotho go through is not in the Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU) Agreement. For example, it is known that the Agreement is supposed to ensure that citizens of SACU member-countries do not pay tax on a similar item in more than one SACU country. In other words, citizens of SACU member-states should not be taxed twice, or more, for the same item within the SACU area.

But because of the bureaucracy that has been imposed on customs processes at the Lesotho-South Africa borders, many people fall victim to some bureaucratic detail, or other, and end up paying tax in South Africa and Lesotho for a similar item, or service.
In the new regime agreed by RSL and SARS, RSL officials tell us that we are supposed to stamp all receipts of value of M250, and above, at SARS. They say this while distributing a leaflet that says the threshold is M10 000.

For the M250 receipt to be stamped, you need to submit to SARS copies of pages of your passport showing your address in Lesotho, and showing dates on which you travelled to and from South Africa. The implication of this is that if you carry a South African passport you cannot bring groceries into Lesotho for reasons including the fact that Lesotho government cannot claim tax from South Africa on such goods. It is unclear what will happen to a South African tourists coming to Lesotho who might be refused permission to enter with their food.

As said, the requirement that we should stamp M250 receipts at SARS is not on the leaflet RSL officials are giving to travellers. Extraordinarily, RSL officials admit this.
So, at the expense of our time, and standing in receipt-stamping queues that will inevitably grow longer and longer, we are being forced to adhere to a requirement which is nowhere in the official papers.

Has the new regime been negotiated and agreed to by RSL officials alone, or is the government aware of the unreasonable measures that we have to comply with?
It must be said that, at least, for now, the RSL staff remain very helpful, and seem to acknowledge that requirements they are expected to enforce are unreasonable.
It seems nobody thinks of us when government and officials agree to onerous customs measures at our border posts. In part this is because, again, those we have lent power to represent us use that power to exempt themselves onerous procedures that they negotiate and agree to.
We need people who think of us when they negotiate customs and other agreements. Basotho need somebody who can speak on their behalf.

Prof Motlatsi Thabane

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Developing close reading skills



One of the most important skills in adeptly dealing with comprehension-related questions lies in your acquisition and refining close-reading competencies and strategies. The word comprehend means to understand, to fully grasp the essence of a text. When you comprehend a text you will take in, as it were, all the elements of a text, you nibble in, to speak using metaphors, your teeth into the heart of the text. You savour the text, immersing yourself in the texture of the text.

Close-reading involves deep observation and critical analysis of a text or comprehension passage. Close-reading strategies demands that the reader of a text pick even the salient nuances of a text, he or she must take in all the hues and details of a text which are not mentioned directly in the text. This skill takes time to hone, but with constant practice and hard work, it can be done. Let’s do that in a practical way. We are going to focus on a very small extract depicting how one aspiring ironman trained rigorously to realise his dream and the social and emotional toll the training exerted on the man and his family and how, finally he won, much to the happiness and excitement of his family. Here is the extract, as you read, please focus on the use of language to create meaning and effect. Let’s try to discern the feelings of the writer when her husband, eventually became an ironman.

“Because it’s there,’ I’d snarl to anyone who dared question why any sane mortal would tackle an Ironman. I enjoyed mercilessly shaming his less-than-supportive business partner into recognising the potentially boundless benefits of Sam’s well-publicised adventure for their newly-established, fledgling travel company. A flurry of online articles described me as ‘a runner married to a triathlete’ – it took me a few moments to recognise our family and beam with immeasurable pride.
Our son missed having Dad around at the weekends, especially if he woke up after Sam had left to train on a Saturday when sometimes there were tears. But he got used to the different dynamic. He was given an ‘Ironman’ superhero toy as a birthday gift by some relatives and immediately started making it swim, bike and run! The poor child thinks that this is how normal families operate.

Having said all that, watching Sam emerge god-like from the water, power past us on his bike and rocket down the finishing chute, head held high as our kids cheered with the crowd – utterly incredible and intoxicating, one of life’s rare pinnacles of perfection. It had been an epic journey for all of us. I’m so glad we did it. And next year? Well yes, it’s my turn.”

Have you seen how this extract is written in a very captivating way; it colourfully depicts the writer’s feelings of extreme excitement and euphoria when Sam completed the race successfully. The words, “having said all that” are colourful and conclusive. Before these words were uttered, the narrator was expressing her dissatisfaction about Sam’s involvement in sport and how demanding it was emotionally, physically and financially. But, now, the words show that the success overwhelmed even the sentiments or expressions of dissatisfaction registered earlier. One can also see that the writer is overwhelmed by pride and celebration at the success of her husband and she and the entire crowd were immersed in an “intoxicating” experience. Beer intoxicates, so the writer uses this word as a word picture to graphically show the intensity and pervasive nature of the happiness generated by Sam’s victory — it is as if they were overdrunk with the sense of success and accomplishment. Sam’s win evoked all those rare moments in life when all seems to be perfect and in its place; that is why the writer used the words, “life’s rare pinnacles of perfection” just to express that.

Have you also noticed how the writer uses a lot of word pictures to describe her reactions about people’s views regarding her husband’s involvement in the ironman race? One such word, a word picture is “flurry.” The word explains the immensity as well as the amount of excitement and frenzy of publicity generated by Sam’s attempt to be the iron man. This word is apt in describing the writer’s admiration for her husband’s feat and the publicity and excitement generated.
Let’s now focus on another text, let’s focus on how the extract reveals why people hate snakes as a result of the misconceptions they have about them. But notice how the writer arguably writes to endear us to the world of snakes and some of their very positive attributes. Let’s nibble at the text of the extract.

“In the United States, for example, public outcry based on fear and misinformation recently halted a scientifically sound conservation plan for timber rattlesnakes. Another project at the same location that involved releasing eagles was embraced by the community. Rattlesnakes are no less important than eagles. In fact, they may help reduce the incidence of Lyme disease, which affects thousands of people each year, by reducing the number of rodents that harbour this disease. But emotions override facts, it seems, where snakes are concerned. Snakes play an integral role in maintaining balance in the ecosystem – in most ecosystems on earth, snakes can be both predator and prey. When a large prey-population attracts and sustains a large snake population, those snakes become prey for birds, mammals and even other snakes! As predators, snakes keep prey-populations in balance. Snakes provide an easy, environmentally friendly, free and natural pest-control service. But snakes are worth saving not because of what they can do for us, but because of who they are. Snakes share many behaviours with us, behaviours we value. They have friends. They take care of their kids and even their friends’ kids too. Want to help us change how people view and treat snakes? Visit the World Snake Day website.”

While you were still reading, I hope you saw that this is a really captivating text. It focuses on the misconceptions and lack of information we have about snakes, which information gaps lead us into hating snakes without reason. True, snakes are predatory but they also serve an important function in balancing the ecological balance.

Snakes are not that bad, too; and like us humans, they make friends, protect their young ones and the young ones of their friends. Pretty amazing to learn that snakes, too, have friends.

So the point is that there are a lot of falsehoods and misconceptions about snakes and their true habits and functions within the ecological sphere. Often times, they are shown to be cruel, bloody predators that kill in cold-blood. But snakes are also victims from birth and other creatures. Snakes are a natural means to curb diseases which are brought about by rodents. Thus, snakes help in maintaining balance in the ecosystem. Snakes are relational and friendly.
Let’s now hone close-reading skills a little more. In the following extract, the writer beautifully describes her experiences of meeting snakes in their natural habitats in the rainforest and her excitement of seeing quite an exciting array of species. As you read, focus on the writer’s reaction to what she saw and how she is alive to the beautiful scenery around her and she captures that.

“Three hours later, returning from the trek, I felt bubbles of amazement and wonder rising. I’d seen gliding lizards fly effortlessly between trees, intricate dragonflies of infinite varieties and delicately etched, golden frogs. The overcast sky, saturated to the brim, had poured down heavily, drenching the forest, its native creatures, and the handful of humans who happened to be there. Thereafter began the frenzy of activities and sounds that engulfs the woods after a good rain – rhythmic sounds, musical, coordinated and orchestrated, and pleasantly deafening. Ah! My brimming heart and soothed soul enjoyed restful sleep in the tent that first night. Bonfires and loud music are prohibited to avoid any disturbance to animals and hygienic common bathrooms (with hot-water facilities) were appreciated. Everyone was expected to wash their own plates and glasses after every meal. We were encouraged to separate organic waste into the respective dustbins before retiring each night. All inorganic waste went back with you.”

You have picked words which convey meaning so aptly and beautifully. I liked the expression and the choice of words. The phrase, “bubbles of amazement” is so colourful and this is a word picture which shows or reflects the intensity of the writer’s excitement and frenzy at experiencing the tranquil and pleasant experience of being in a rainforest teeming with a vast array of species.

Here we are! Mastering close reading skills is a journey, but an exciting one, which allows you to immerse yourself in the text and allows you to feel all the juicy aspects of the text, as it were.

 Vuso Mhlanga teaches at the University of Zimbabwe. For almost a decade and half he taught English language and Literature in English at high school. Send your comments and questions to:

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The significance of BRICS for the African continent



In the pioneering work titled “Building Better Global Economic BRICs” (Global Economics Paper No: 66), Lord Jim O’Neill, then Chief Economist at Goldman Sachs, introduced the term BRICs, referring to the emerging economies of Brazil, Russia, India, and China. These nations’ economies were experiencing rapid growth, fuelling discussions about their potential to collectively shape the global economy by 2050. In the spirit of this vision, the leaders of Brazil, Russia, India, and China convened for the first time in July 2006, on the sidelines of the G8 Outreach Summit in St Petersburg, Russia. This marked a pivotal moment in cementing the idea of forming a consortium of burgeoning economies.

Subsequently, the Foreign Ministers of these countries assembled in New York City in 2006 on the sidelines of the United Nations General Assembly and embraced the term “BRIC” as originally coined by Lord Jim O’Neill. On June 16, 2009, the inaugural ‘BRIC’ Summit was held in Yekaterinburg, Russia. Later, South Africa was granted full membership in September 2010 during a BRIC Foreign Ministers meeting on the fringes of the UN General Assembly. This led to the alteration of the acronym to BRICS. Building on this progress, South Africa participated in the Third BRICS Summit in Sanya, China, on April 14, 2011.

BRICS is firmly anchored in the principles of mutual respect, sovereign equality, inclusivity, consensus, and strengthened collaboration. The foundation of BRICS rests upon three pivotal pillars: political and security cooperation, financial and economic collaboration, and cultural and people-to-people exchanges. These pillars serve as a robust framework for guiding the alliance’s interactions and ensuring its enduring viability. This sentiment is particularly pronounced as the 15th BRICS Summit, slated for August 22-24, 2023, in Johannesburg, South Africa, convenes under the theme “BRICS and Africa: Partnership for Mutually Accelerated Growth, Sustainable Development, and Inclusive Multilateralism.”

Drawing from the World Bank data from 2022, the combined population of the five BRICS nations stands at 3.27 billion, constituting 41.1% of the global population. These countries’ cumulative Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for 2022 is valued at 25.92 trillion, accounting for 25.8% of the world’s GDP. In contrast, Africa’s total population across its 55 countries is estimated at 1.4 billion, representing 17.5% of the global population. Africa’s overall GDP amounts to approximately US$3.0 trillion, contributing 2.7% to the global GDP.

The African Development Bank’s African Economic Outlook for 2023, underscores Africa’s abundant natural resources — oil, gas, minerals, land, sunlight, wind, and biodiversity —whose potential remains largely untapped and undervalued. The report highlights Africa’s trillion-dollar investment potential in the climate and green growth sectors, offering a promising avenue for private sector involvement.

The UN Conference on Trade and Development’s (UNCTAD) BRICS Investment Report for 2023 reveals that the BRICS economies collectively account for 18% of global exports and approximately $250 billion in foreign direct investment outflows. Notably, the BRICS nations have emerged as significant investors in Africa, with a particular focus on industrial and service sectors, as confirmed by the Africa Development Bank’s Briefing Note titled “Africa and the BRICS: A Win-Win Partnership?” (2003).
Moreover, the BRICS countries have expanded their presence on the continent in terms of foreign direct investment, outpacing traditional partners such as the United States and Europe. This emphasis on harnessing natural resources and boosting agricultural production is also underscored by the UN Economic Commission for Africa’s (UNECA) Report “BRICS/Africa Partnership for Development” (2014).

Leveraging their substantial economic potential, the BRICS nations are optimally positioned to support Africa’s aspirations under the AU Agenda 2063. These countries play a pivotal role in driving investments in natural resource beneficiation, manufacturing, and industrialisation across the continent. They also provide strategic impetus for enhancing productivity and competitiveness, especially within the agricultural sector, through consistent investment efforts.
The emergence of the BRICS New Development Bank offers an alternative to the Western-dominated multilateral financial institutions, which have historically contributed to Africa’s infrastructure development at a gradual pace. This bank holds the promise of financing comprehensive infrastructure projects across the continent, thereby enhancing connectivity through rail, maritime, air routes, and information and communication technology — an aspiration cherished by the African populace.

A symbiotic partnership between Africa and BRICS has the potential to elevate Africa’s status as a significant player on the global stage. This partnership extends to bolstering Africa’s role in global governance structures, including institutions like the United Nations and Multilateral Financial Institutions. The expansion of BRICS to encompass additional nations, including those from Africa, is poised to inspire African countries to assume greater responsibility for funding their sustainable development endeavours.

This approach empowers African nations to form alliances with developed countries that squarely address the continent’s priorities for sustainable growth and economic transformation. Most notably, the BRICS initiative lays the foundation for a multipolar world, contrasting the prevailing unipolar influence exerted by the US and the G7 countries (Canada, France, Italy, Germany, Japan, UK, and the US). This envisioned multipolar world rests on principles such as mutual respect, sovereign equality, inclusiveness, consensus, and fortified collaborations. The International Monetary Fund, Economic Outlook (April, 2023) reveals that the population of the G7 countries is around 776.55 million representing 9.7% of the global population. The GDP for the G7 countries is around US$42.92 trillion representing around 30% of the world GDP.
In a recent interview with Africa Business in June 2023, Lord Jim O’Neill, the visionary behind BRICS, shared his perspective on the future of BRICS and its implications for Africa. He astutely remarked, “the notion that the group of seven ‘industrialised’ or ‘more developed’ or ‘early developed’ (G7) nations can single-handedly govern the world is disconcerting, given their diminishing share of the global GDP. Moreover, the G7 often finds itself aligned with the desires of Washington (US). How then can these select few address the world’s most pressing challenges? This predicament highlights the raison d’être behind my conception of BRICS: to advocate for a more effective global governance model than what the G7 offers.”

It is for these reasons that the enduring partnership between Africa and BRICS embodies a shared commitment to sustainable development, economic growth, and the transformation of global governance structures. The collaborative approach rooted in mutual benefit, respect, and a multi-polar perspective has the potential to reshape the global landscape, ensuring a more inclusive and prosperous future for all.

Advocate Batlokoa Makong is a seasoned diplomat currently working for the African Union. He writes in his personal capacity.

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