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  1. S. Mothibi

Off the top of my head, this is written off the top of my head, and only common sense, memory and rememory take the fore in this instance or episode. I will this day write as a common man, and not as an academic, or professional because there are certain things that I believe need not the depth of research or discussion to understand. This is due to their simple nature that demands simplicity in its simplest form, and at this level, so I have come to realise; logic and reason lose their sense, ethics and philosophy cannot define some of the occurrences.

Recounting history is a travail for those that believe they should stick to the book at all times, but for those that know as fact that some of the most memorable events in the passage of time remain unwritten in the books of history despite their significance and contribution to the progress of the human kind, history is recounted at the simple level of milestones. These are some of the aspects of daily human life which I intend to cover in this episode, that is, our love and citizenship as human beings in the various locations on earth, our struggles and travails, our moments of triumph and our glories, our pains and our sorrows, our moments of joy and mirth, our virtues and our depravities; all of these things can easily be understood if one speaks from the point of view of the individual that experiences them in a lifetime, but they are very different in both form and appearance when viewed from the point of view of the collective.

Whatever joy it is one may have at achieving anything in life does not matter if they have no collective to share it with. And despite the changes in the tides of time, we still find one constant that the collective empirically defines all in spite of negation by those that have a view contrary to that of the masses. This is what I choose to call the definitive, and the Basotho as an African people have had their definitive points that deserve some discussing, no matter how shallow some beings may deem them to be.

Love defies understanding and common sense whether it is viewed and analysed at a level individual or communal. What evokes love remains a mystery to me, for I can only define it in terms of feelings whose origin I have so far not figured out. An observer of things social and private, I have seen this one element of hum

South Africa, 1990: Nelson Mandela, the day after his release from prison.

South Africa, 1990: Nelson Mandela, the day after his release from prison.

anity expressed in endless ways, and more often than less, those moments of expression leave me with a sense of deep seated reverence and gratitude that I was granted the grace to witness the expression of love in action. Think of King Moshoeshoe I’s love for his motley crew of tribes that turned out to be the most peaceful nation on earth. Think of the influence of his life philosophy on the characters of Nelson Mandela and post-Apartheid South Africa. Find its similarities in the basic tenets by which Mohandas Karamchand Ghandi lived, cast your eyes overseas and see the biography of Martin Luther King Jnr unfold a leaf of the life of the truly pious whose ranks include the selfless Mother Teresa whose sacrifice has gone on to inspire the charity of men and women who take care of AIDS orphans in our midst.

I cannot define the love in words, I stand in merely as a witness to its expression in the lives of men and women who have gone on to infect the world’s masses with it. There is no single phrase that can define it in toto, but one finds its similarities in the lyrics of the Beatles’ “All You Need is Love”, in Bob Marley’s “One Love”, and in the messages of Emeritus Bishop Desmond Tutu. There is an interconnectedness of nations when one reviews the history of the world from the point of view of love. There is love still, I believe: we just do not speak enough about it as Basotho.

The politics of our time and age take the fore, but they are in every essence not who we are, they are just what they are; party colours and banners. We can go to rallies and come fired up with political fervour…but the master of the house patiently waits and orders us to do the rightful, to love each other unconditionally, to tolerate each other selflessly as neighbours and relatives and communities. Love does not beg to be loved or worshipped, it just is and is identical to one basic aspect of humanity; birth: none of us filled forms to be here as citizens of the earth, we were born on the day of that month in the year fate (if there is such) chose for us to be.  And if we love, we become better world citizens, better human beings that believe more in embracing other people and individuals at the most basic level; the human level: as King Moshoeshoe I taught as he was by King Mohlomi.

Growing up, one of the best statements that I heard used in the definition of the cause of war and strife argues that:

The only reason that mankind goes to war is due to the fact that men spend their time telling each other that, ‘my violence is better than yours’

And so the game of thrones begins and never ends, because a boy that becomes a king for a day on the chessboard soon gathers competition, and the competition’s sole intention seems to be to sit on his rickety throne even if it is just for a few minutes. And the boy king or girl queen of the day protects that chair at all costs, he or she makes sure to protect it with Limo’s spiked club or Tom Sawyer’s smart cunning; the chair is protected. And time moves on, and calls for patriotism and good citizenship are forgotten in the endless fisticuffs for the one chair the hero of the day will not give up for anything and anyone.

The first years of this country’s independence from British protectoral status saw a mass exile of women and men into foreign countries where they were citizen nobodies because they had to flee from the dogs of war on the home front. This case is not unique to Lesotho; the case of the exile has always been central in the armed struggles all over this continent and the world: for where war and not love rules, citizenship loses its essence. Women and men end up as citizens of everywhere because their homes cannot take them anymore, because no love is lost between them and their kin, or their neighbour. Tolerance as begat of love needs to be taught; we need to be taught that we need each other, that though it is true that diamond cut diamond, it is also that a simple leather strop is what is used to whet a steel blade to razor sharpness despite the two materials’ apparent difference. Citizenship does not necessarily entail similarity; our difference teaches us to be more considerate towards each other, that if each considers the next one as human enough to share the same living space as they do, then all stand to enjoy the benefits of their status as earth citizens.

We are denizens of this terra firma, and we are citizens of The Kingdom in the Sky, and we are part of the history of the continent of Africa, and are full family members in the Global Community. We have from the First World War through the Second World War bled and died in the trenches with fellow human beings in the battles against monsters whose intentions threatened to tear the sacred blanket of our humanity. We came back from those wars a stronger united nation well in touch with the rest of the world.

We came back better human beings, for the war did not get the better of us and turn us into monsters; and from this premise, one can safely assume that the progress of this here country should not be impeded by such minor altercations as war and civil strife. We came back from war and established the finest institutions of higher learning, and we have a rich history when it comes to the education of the young generations of this continent.

Look at the history of the National University of Lesotho from its inception as Pius XII College, count the names of its alumni and you shall begin to realise what a tremendous influence we have had on the education of this continent and the world. Resorting to judge such an institution on the basis of such menial trivialities as world rankings blinds one to the fact that the university has in deed had a positive influence on the education of the children of the world. I choose to believe that we still are the best country, still have the best education system despite the slight glitches that should naturally be a part of the progress and development of any entity in the world.

The history of our times is determined by the level of commitment in the hearts of the men and the women entrusted with seeing it through the runway before it takes off. That we do not develop quickly enough for the world to see should not be the main concern; that we are laying down solid foundations of progress should be the point of our focus. The hitches and the hiccups that prevent smooth progression towards intended goals and targets should never prevent us from striving towards the attainment of commendable standards of civility and progress. The world honours exceptional standard, for the world can copy from such and adopt it into projects garnered toward the attainment of harmonious human progress.

As said previously, the influence King Moshoeshoe I has had on the world diplomatic scene has given birth to such virtuous philosophies as tolerance, Ubuntu, reconciliation, and assimilation. How a simple African king could have had such a tremendous influence on the psyche of the world cannot be defined by words, that his name is often not mentioned in peace gatherings of the world is surprising, if not outright preposterous. However, it should not be the main concern; our focus should be on guaranteeing that his legacy of peace is passed on to the rest of the world where true peace remains elusive.

We should shape our hearts as he did, and we should adopt his counsel where the need to find a peaceable way to solve our misunderstandings is needed. This tribe of many peoples became a nation only because the king who begat it was a good human being who knew that our differences do not set us apart but in actual fact unite us. The difference we believe in these days that makes us think we are unique is of a dangerous sort, of the sort reminiscent to a castle of sand that will be washed off by the early tides of time and progress because it has no foundation.

Milestones are often counted in historical and political terms, I believe they should be counted in human terms; for, what are we but grains of dust in the wind of time. We are born, we live, we pass on, and then we are remembered if we had a real impact on the progress of humanity, or, we are forgotten as chaff if we choose not to influence the world in a positive way. I guess that all the names that are mentioned in history books and those that are not but are remembered, most of them had a truly positive impact on the progress of humankind.

They are the milestones with which we can gauge the distance covered in terms of our humanness over the course of history. And such virtues as love and trust, faith and hope, commitment and tenacity, charity and gratitude; they have all acted as the fuel and the drivers of the progress of humanity towards a better tomorrow. For there is in reality a better tomorrow if one truly believes in it, and we can get there united and together if we collectively ensure that it happens.

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Who will speak on behalf of Basotho?



A clash was reported to have taken place a few weeks ago between police officers, on the one hand, and an MP and his bodyguards, on the other, was always inevitable. It is a direct result of arrangements where people we have lent power to represent us in Parliament now use that power to come up with schemes by which they and their bodyguards should be exempted from equal treatment, and be treated differently from the rest us.

This conduct is anti-seMohlomi, and anti-seMoshoeshoe. And so are many other behaviours we have seen perpetrated by our MPs.

We can expect that those who behave this way will not stop at violation of road traffic laws but will go on to carry contraband in ‘MP’ registered vehicles, and claim exemption from police searches when confronted by the police.
The principle of ‘equality before the law’, and the principle that we should all be treated the same, is a fundamental requirement for the maintenance of social order. MPs who ignore, or violate, it are sources of social disorder. Such MPs have to be regarded as enemies of social order in Lesotho. They should bear in mind that they are opposing society when they oppose the police’s attempts to enforce the law.

We should all obey traffic laws. And, we should all stand in long queues for poor services at the Passport and Traffic Offices. Otherwise, if those we have voted into power use that power to exempt themselves and their bodyguards from poor public services, MPs will have no incentive and interest to work for improved quality of public service.
The failure by MPs and governments to address problems of poor public services is an important reason why everyday many Basotho cross into South Africa in search of better education, better medical services, and lower prices of basic necessities. That traffic includes cars which bear red registration numbers ferrying Lesotho public officials to South Africa for better services.

As always, MPs, Ministers, and other public servants will probably be exempted, or expect to be exempted, from the torment that comes with the new customs regime agreed by Revenue Services (SARS) and Revenue Services Lesotho (RSL), and implemented at RSA-Lesotho border posts. Exemption of officials and MPs will mean that they will have no interest, nor incentive, to lessen its toll on Basotho.
The new regime started early in August 2023. To educate travellers about it, the RSL staff at the Maseru border have been giving people leaflets that explain the new procedures.

Even before this new regime, and others that came before it, many people have always been suspicious that a lot of what people who enter Lesotho go through is not in the Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU) Agreement. For example, it is known that the Agreement is supposed to ensure that citizens of SACU member-countries do not pay tax on a similar item in more than one SACU country. In other words, citizens of SACU member-states should not be taxed twice, or more, for the same item within the SACU area.

But because of the bureaucracy that has been imposed on customs processes at the Lesotho-South Africa borders, many people fall victim to some bureaucratic detail, or other, and end up paying tax in South Africa and Lesotho for a similar item, or service.
In the new regime agreed by RSL and SARS, RSL officials tell us that we are supposed to stamp all receipts of value of M250, and above, at SARS. They say this while distributing a leaflet that says the threshold is M10 000.

For the M250 receipt to be stamped, you need to submit to SARS copies of pages of your passport showing your address in Lesotho, and showing dates on which you travelled to and from South Africa. The implication of this is that if you carry a South African passport you cannot bring groceries into Lesotho for reasons including the fact that Lesotho government cannot claim tax from South Africa on such goods. It is unclear what will happen to a South African tourists coming to Lesotho who might be refused permission to enter with their food.

As said, the requirement that we should stamp M250 receipts at SARS is not on the leaflet RSL officials are giving to travellers. Extraordinarily, RSL officials admit this.
So, at the expense of our time, and standing in receipt-stamping queues that will inevitably grow longer and longer, we are being forced to adhere to a requirement which is nowhere in the official papers.

Has the new regime been negotiated and agreed to by RSL officials alone, or is the government aware of the unreasonable measures that we have to comply with?
It must be said that, at least, for now, the RSL staff remain very helpful, and seem to acknowledge that requirements they are expected to enforce are unreasonable.
It seems nobody thinks of us when government and officials agree to onerous customs measures at our border posts. In part this is because, again, those we have lent power to represent us use that power to exempt themselves onerous procedures that they negotiate and agree to.
We need people who think of us when they negotiate customs and other agreements. Basotho need somebody who can speak on their behalf.

Prof Motlatsi Thabane

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Developing close reading skills



One of the most important skills in adeptly dealing with comprehension-related questions lies in your acquisition and refining close-reading competencies and strategies. The word comprehend means to understand, to fully grasp the essence of a text. When you comprehend a text you will take in, as it were, all the elements of a text, you nibble in, to speak using metaphors, your teeth into the heart of the text. You savour the text, immersing yourself in the texture of the text.

Close-reading involves deep observation and critical analysis of a text or comprehension passage. Close-reading strategies demands that the reader of a text pick even the salient nuances of a text, he or she must take in all the hues and details of a text which are not mentioned directly in the text. This skill takes time to hone, but with constant practice and hard work, it can be done. Let’s do that in a practical way. We are going to focus on a very small extract depicting how one aspiring ironman trained rigorously to realise his dream and the social and emotional toll the training exerted on the man and his family and how, finally he won, much to the happiness and excitement of his family. Here is the extract, as you read, please focus on the use of language to create meaning and effect. Let’s try to discern the feelings of the writer when her husband, eventually became an ironman.

“Because it’s there,’ I’d snarl to anyone who dared question why any sane mortal would tackle an Ironman. I enjoyed mercilessly shaming his less-than-supportive business partner into recognising the potentially boundless benefits of Sam’s well-publicised adventure for their newly-established, fledgling travel company. A flurry of online articles described me as ‘a runner married to a triathlete’ – it took me a few moments to recognise our family and beam with immeasurable pride.
Our son missed having Dad around at the weekends, especially if he woke up after Sam had left to train on a Saturday when sometimes there were tears. But he got used to the different dynamic. He was given an ‘Ironman’ superhero toy as a birthday gift by some relatives and immediately started making it swim, bike and run! The poor child thinks that this is how normal families operate.

Having said all that, watching Sam emerge god-like from the water, power past us on his bike and rocket down the finishing chute, head held high as our kids cheered with the crowd – utterly incredible and intoxicating, one of life’s rare pinnacles of perfection. It had been an epic journey for all of us. I’m so glad we did it. And next year? Well yes, it’s my turn.”

Have you seen how this extract is written in a very captivating way; it colourfully depicts the writer’s feelings of extreme excitement and euphoria when Sam completed the race successfully. The words, “having said all that” are colourful and conclusive. Before these words were uttered, the narrator was expressing her dissatisfaction about Sam’s involvement in sport and how demanding it was emotionally, physically and financially. But, now, the words show that the success overwhelmed even the sentiments or expressions of dissatisfaction registered earlier. One can also see that the writer is overwhelmed by pride and celebration at the success of her husband and she and the entire crowd were immersed in an “intoxicating” experience. Beer intoxicates, so the writer uses this word as a word picture to graphically show the intensity and pervasive nature of the happiness generated by Sam’s victory — it is as if they were overdrunk with the sense of success and accomplishment. Sam’s win evoked all those rare moments in life when all seems to be perfect and in its place; that is why the writer used the words, “life’s rare pinnacles of perfection” just to express that.

Have you also noticed how the writer uses a lot of word pictures to describe her reactions about people’s views regarding her husband’s involvement in the ironman race? One such word, a word picture is “flurry.” The word explains the immensity as well as the amount of excitement and frenzy of publicity generated by Sam’s attempt to be the iron man. This word is apt in describing the writer’s admiration for her husband’s feat and the publicity and excitement generated.
Let’s now focus on another text, let’s focus on how the extract reveals why people hate snakes as a result of the misconceptions they have about them. But notice how the writer arguably writes to endear us to the world of snakes and some of their very positive attributes. Let’s nibble at the text of the extract.

“In the United States, for example, public outcry based on fear and misinformation recently halted a scientifically sound conservation plan for timber rattlesnakes. Another project at the same location that involved releasing eagles was embraced by the community. Rattlesnakes are no less important than eagles. In fact, they may help reduce the incidence of Lyme disease, which affects thousands of people each year, by reducing the number of rodents that harbour this disease. But emotions override facts, it seems, where snakes are concerned. Snakes play an integral role in maintaining balance in the ecosystem – in most ecosystems on earth, snakes can be both predator and prey. When a large prey-population attracts and sustains a large snake population, those snakes become prey for birds, mammals and even other snakes! As predators, snakes keep prey-populations in balance. Snakes provide an easy, environmentally friendly, free and natural pest-control service. But snakes are worth saving not because of what they can do for us, but because of who they are. Snakes share many behaviours with us, behaviours we value. They have friends. They take care of their kids and even their friends’ kids too. Want to help us change how people view and treat snakes? Visit the World Snake Day website.”

While you were still reading, I hope you saw that this is a really captivating text. It focuses on the misconceptions and lack of information we have about snakes, which information gaps lead us into hating snakes without reason. True, snakes are predatory but they also serve an important function in balancing the ecological balance.

Snakes are not that bad, too; and like us humans, they make friends, protect their young ones and the young ones of their friends. Pretty amazing to learn that snakes, too, have friends.

So the point is that there are a lot of falsehoods and misconceptions about snakes and their true habits and functions within the ecological sphere. Often times, they are shown to be cruel, bloody predators that kill in cold-blood. But snakes are also victims from birth and other creatures. Snakes are a natural means to curb diseases which are brought about by rodents. Thus, snakes help in maintaining balance in the ecosystem. Snakes are relational and friendly.
Let’s now hone close-reading skills a little more. In the following extract, the writer beautifully describes her experiences of meeting snakes in their natural habitats in the rainforest and her excitement of seeing quite an exciting array of species. As you read, focus on the writer’s reaction to what she saw and how she is alive to the beautiful scenery around her and she captures that.

“Three hours later, returning from the trek, I felt bubbles of amazement and wonder rising. I’d seen gliding lizards fly effortlessly between trees, intricate dragonflies of infinite varieties and delicately etched, golden frogs. The overcast sky, saturated to the brim, had poured down heavily, drenching the forest, its native creatures, and the handful of humans who happened to be there. Thereafter began the frenzy of activities and sounds that engulfs the woods after a good rain – rhythmic sounds, musical, coordinated and orchestrated, and pleasantly deafening. Ah! My brimming heart and soothed soul enjoyed restful sleep in the tent that first night. Bonfires and loud music are prohibited to avoid any disturbance to animals and hygienic common bathrooms (with hot-water facilities) were appreciated. Everyone was expected to wash their own plates and glasses after every meal. We were encouraged to separate organic waste into the respective dustbins before retiring each night. All inorganic waste went back with you.”

You have picked words which convey meaning so aptly and beautifully. I liked the expression and the choice of words. The phrase, “bubbles of amazement” is so colourful and this is a word picture which shows or reflects the intensity of the writer’s excitement and frenzy at experiencing the tranquil and pleasant experience of being in a rainforest teeming with a vast array of species.

Here we are! Mastering close reading skills is a journey, but an exciting one, which allows you to immerse yourself in the text and allows you to feel all the juicy aspects of the text, as it were.

 Vuso Mhlanga teaches at the University of Zimbabwe. For almost a decade and half he taught English language and Literature in English at high school. Send your comments and questions to:

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The significance of BRICS for the African continent



In the pioneering work titled “Building Better Global Economic BRICs” (Global Economics Paper No: 66), Lord Jim O’Neill, then Chief Economist at Goldman Sachs, introduced the term BRICs, referring to the emerging economies of Brazil, Russia, India, and China. These nations’ economies were experiencing rapid growth, fuelling discussions about their potential to collectively shape the global economy by 2050. In the spirit of this vision, the leaders of Brazil, Russia, India, and China convened for the first time in July 2006, on the sidelines of the G8 Outreach Summit in St Petersburg, Russia. This marked a pivotal moment in cementing the idea of forming a consortium of burgeoning economies.

Subsequently, the Foreign Ministers of these countries assembled in New York City in 2006 on the sidelines of the United Nations General Assembly and embraced the term “BRIC” as originally coined by Lord Jim O’Neill. On June 16, 2009, the inaugural ‘BRIC’ Summit was held in Yekaterinburg, Russia. Later, South Africa was granted full membership in September 2010 during a BRIC Foreign Ministers meeting on the fringes of the UN General Assembly. This led to the alteration of the acronym to BRICS. Building on this progress, South Africa participated in the Third BRICS Summit in Sanya, China, on April 14, 2011.

BRICS is firmly anchored in the principles of mutual respect, sovereign equality, inclusivity, consensus, and strengthened collaboration. The foundation of BRICS rests upon three pivotal pillars: political and security cooperation, financial and economic collaboration, and cultural and people-to-people exchanges. These pillars serve as a robust framework for guiding the alliance’s interactions and ensuring its enduring viability. This sentiment is particularly pronounced as the 15th BRICS Summit, slated for August 22-24, 2023, in Johannesburg, South Africa, convenes under the theme “BRICS and Africa: Partnership for Mutually Accelerated Growth, Sustainable Development, and Inclusive Multilateralism.”

Drawing from the World Bank data from 2022, the combined population of the five BRICS nations stands at 3.27 billion, constituting 41.1% of the global population. These countries’ cumulative Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for 2022 is valued at 25.92 trillion, accounting for 25.8% of the world’s GDP. In contrast, Africa’s total population across its 55 countries is estimated at 1.4 billion, representing 17.5% of the global population. Africa’s overall GDP amounts to approximately US$3.0 trillion, contributing 2.7% to the global GDP.

The African Development Bank’s African Economic Outlook for 2023, underscores Africa’s abundant natural resources — oil, gas, minerals, land, sunlight, wind, and biodiversity —whose potential remains largely untapped and undervalued. The report highlights Africa’s trillion-dollar investment potential in the climate and green growth sectors, offering a promising avenue for private sector involvement.

The UN Conference on Trade and Development’s (UNCTAD) BRICS Investment Report for 2023 reveals that the BRICS economies collectively account for 18% of global exports and approximately $250 billion in foreign direct investment outflows. Notably, the BRICS nations have emerged as significant investors in Africa, with a particular focus on industrial and service sectors, as confirmed by the Africa Development Bank’s Briefing Note titled “Africa and the BRICS: A Win-Win Partnership?” (2003).
Moreover, the BRICS countries have expanded their presence on the continent in terms of foreign direct investment, outpacing traditional partners such as the United States and Europe. This emphasis on harnessing natural resources and boosting agricultural production is also underscored by the UN Economic Commission for Africa’s (UNECA) Report “BRICS/Africa Partnership for Development” (2014).

Leveraging their substantial economic potential, the BRICS nations are optimally positioned to support Africa’s aspirations under the AU Agenda 2063. These countries play a pivotal role in driving investments in natural resource beneficiation, manufacturing, and industrialisation across the continent. They also provide strategic impetus for enhancing productivity and competitiveness, especially within the agricultural sector, through consistent investment efforts.
The emergence of the BRICS New Development Bank offers an alternative to the Western-dominated multilateral financial institutions, which have historically contributed to Africa’s infrastructure development at a gradual pace. This bank holds the promise of financing comprehensive infrastructure projects across the continent, thereby enhancing connectivity through rail, maritime, air routes, and information and communication technology — an aspiration cherished by the African populace.

A symbiotic partnership between Africa and BRICS has the potential to elevate Africa’s status as a significant player on the global stage. This partnership extends to bolstering Africa’s role in global governance structures, including institutions like the United Nations and Multilateral Financial Institutions. The expansion of BRICS to encompass additional nations, including those from Africa, is poised to inspire African countries to assume greater responsibility for funding their sustainable development endeavours.

This approach empowers African nations to form alliances with developed countries that squarely address the continent’s priorities for sustainable growth and economic transformation. Most notably, the BRICS initiative lays the foundation for a multipolar world, contrasting the prevailing unipolar influence exerted by the US and the G7 countries (Canada, France, Italy, Germany, Japan, UK, and the US). This envisioned multipolar world rests on principles such as mutual respect, sovereign equality, inclusiveness, consensus, and fortified collaborations. The International Monetary Fund, Economic Outlook (April, 2023) reveals that the population of the G7 countries is around 776.55 million representing 9.7% of the global population. The GDP for the G7 countries is around US$42.92 trillion representing around 30% of the world GDP.
In a recent interview with Africa Business in June 2023, Lord Jim O’Neill, the visionary behind BRICS, shared his perspective on the future of BRICS and its implications for Africa. He astutely remarked, “the notion that the group of seven ‘industrialised’ or ‘more developed’ or ‘early developed’ (G7) nations can single-handedly govern the world is disconcerting, given their diminishing share of the global GDP. Moreover, the G7 often finds itself aligned with the desires of Washington (US). How then can these select few address the world’s most pressing challenges? This predicament highlights the raison d’être behind my conception of BRICS: to advocate for a more effective global governance model than what the G7 offers.”

It is for these reasons that the enduring partnership between Africa and BRICS embodies a shared commitment to sustainable development, economic growth, and the transformation of global governance structures. The collaborative approach rooted in mutual benefit, respect, and a multi-polar perspective has the potential to reshape the global landscape, ensuring a more inclusive and prosperous future for all.

Advocate Batlokoa Makong is a seasoned diplomat currently working for the African Union. He writes in his personal capacity.

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