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S. Mothibi

It is said that at its height, the Roman Empire was vast, stretching all the way from the northern tip of England, to the northern regions of Africa, and parts of middle-eastern Asia. Ruled by Caesars (the most famous being Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus who established the Roman Empire in 27 BC), classical or Ancient Rome was a successful empire at its height, but it soon fell into debauchery marked by endless revelling, internal conflicts for positions of power in politics, increased poverty levels in the plebeian masses, and general increase in greed levels amongst the nobles for land and property. Many of the Roman citizens were doomed into serfdom, a lot perished in the rebellions that were savagely stamped out by the armies bearing their scuta, gladiola, and spiked clubs. At the end of the day, the most civilised empire in the history of time became a model of regress and decay, and though it lasted over 423 years it fell due to malaises it created itself. The Roman Empire, however, still influences the way the politics of this world are run, the legal systems of the day still adopt its models, and it can therefore be used as a background when one needs to gauge their levels of progress and change as a country. The question this week is: How far have we changed and progressed as a country since October the 4th 1966?

Being frank never killed anyone, unless such one is surrounded by delusional individuals that find honest truth uncomfortable, and I believe we should be blatantly frank when it comes to incising the issues of progress and change. We should start from the level of the individual, to the level of community, and then to the level of the state and the nation when we analyse the extent of our progress, and the level of our change.

Being roundabout when we should confront issues pertaining to progress and change head on will not get us anywhere as a nation, and I believe, avoiding a problem still in its infancy will just give it time to grow into a monster we will not be able to deal with in a few score years. I look to the way we are socialised as individuals in our society and, drawing from the early years in school, one issue stands out; we are taught to compete for meagre resources by the educational system in place. The dearth of the old spirit of communalism (as found in the concepts of Letsema and Ubuntu) has largely contributed to the demise of these two virtues due to the way children are taught in primary, intermediate and tertiary schools. Being communal in outlook and behaviour is instead of being venerated frowned upon, and whoever sets out to be sharing and considerate of the needs of others is looked upon as a fool. The hecklers will just cackle, “you can never change the world…”, or give the dispirited statement once sung in a beautiful Bruce Hornsby song, “that’s just the way it is…” things are just what they are, and so, if you try and adopt that old spirit of sharing and caring for everyone, you are bound to be left behind by time and progress; because a larger part of the modern generation is bent on grabbing whatever is in sight for their own private self-enrichment. The old faithful spirit of communalism that got this country and nation where it is today is no longer in vogue; individualism is the key term in fashion. That is just the way it is, unless one wants to play the ostrich with his head buried in the sand.

When the wealth of one is at the expense of many it is outright wrong, and when the gap between the rich and the poor becomes an abyss, it is a travesty that should be done away with on the 4th of this October; for we can never claim to be the most peaceful nation in the world with bellies growling in hunger. We can never sing of peace, rain, and prosperity when our silos are empty due to recent droughts, when there is no rain in the skies of the Kingdom in the Sky, when prosperity is only visible on the national coat of arms, and hordes of unemployed educated and uneducated roam the streets.

We are sure to be seen as a bunch of pretenders if we enjoy the festivities of the 50th independence anniversary but forget to map the way forward toward the first century of independence. The truth as seen from my perspective is that, yes we have fought for democracy and proper governance these past 50 years, but we have in the process lost our sense of individual responsibility towards the welfare of other individuals within our communities. Instead of fighting for the progress of all of our society from the level of the individual, one finds that the individual in a lot of ways sets out to progress alone at the expense of the entire society, in brief; we have become a selfish community, that has lost the sacred belief that none should be left behind when it comes to progress.

If the current trend of selfishness carries on, believing that Lesotho will make any significant change or take vital strides towards progress will remain a pipe dream. I know as fact that some believe that being selfless is impossible in the light of the prevailing economic conditions, but I have come across individuals whose selflessness has proven to me that we need more of this virtuous and charitable character if we are to reach our true dream of peace, rain, and prosperity as envisioned by King Moshoeshoe I. Being individualistic will never get us anywhere, and wealth gathered and hoarded in the presence of the poor without being shared might just become a danger to its possessor. This is not a threat, but it is a real possibility we have to be aware of.

When the cellular phone was introduced in the 1990’s, it became a roaring blaze, a successful invention and gadget everyone wanted to hold in their hand and keep in the pouch on the belt. The cellphone in essence became an accessory of status, a symbol of advancement, and we just could not get enough of it. With the passage of just a decade, this trinket became more than just a device though which one could make calls or send and receive text messages, it became a full mini-computer through which multi-media messages and video calls could be made. It became smarter, and currently one can do just about anything a computer can do on the smart phone, but the functionality and advantage of owning one has a flipside; the phone has become an avenue through which cyber and physical crime can easily be committed.

Those that use mobile banking have on several occasions become victims of cyber crime, from having their bank accounts emptied by criminals, or having their e-mail accounts hacked into by unsavoury criminals always on the prowl for unwary victims. Children too have fallen victim to paedophiles and pederasts whilst surfing popular social media websites, and some have been kidnapped by human traffickers that lure them with empty promises. And these social media websites have also become platforms of social unrest and terrorism of sorts, because of the ease of access to what is being shared on the websites. A good innovative technology is now threatening to tear human social fabric and land us in trouble if it goes unchecked, and I believe government policy should take into account the negative effects of technology so that effective countermeasures can be put into place.

Upon graduation, one had the high hope that the certificate bestowed upon them on the day they wore the cap and the gown would be a ticket to the moon. The years passed, the letters of applications piled, and the certificates gathered dust in their frames on the wall, the transcripts gathered mould in their manila envelopes, and hope began to fade as the reality of unemployment set in. Current statistics place the number of unemployed individuals with tertiary qualifications at over 10,000, and this figure is significantly huge enough to instil a sense of hopelessness and mistrust on the value of education in our country.

The question one would ask is simple: What do we go to school for, if not to be employed to make a living? Why waste time in the classroom when one could be engaged in some vocation that at least puts money in their pockets and money on their tables? One senses a lack of commitment on the part of the government to implement measures to curb the negative flow of unemployment. Not enough is being done to stem the tide of hopelessness unemployment washes into the minds of graduates who often have to be content with employment in occupations they did not study for, at a salary scale that is way below the legal rate for individuals of the qualifications they have. The catch phrase is ‘do the best you can with what you have… be content with you get… there are those that are less fortunate than you…’ I find these statements insulting to my intelligence, intelligence gathered from spending over 20 years in classrooms with the hope that someday, one day, I would get a job befitting my qualifications.

That there are youth development programmes in place is good, but it is not enough, the government should take a more practical stance when it comes to the provision of jobs for the masses of unemployed. Keeping the masses busy with meagre salaries will just sow seeds of discontent in the educated unemployed, and it might in the end lead to the formation of a new class of ‘educated’ disgruntled individuals prone to committing acts of crime because it seems the only way available. I know for a fact (from personal experience) that those lists one registers their name on upon graduation in public service sector do not work; I have waited in vain for ten years to hear my name called: the call has never come and will probably never come.

Had I been some individual of lesser mien, I would have by now given in to cheap wine and listlessness, but time has taught me to wait in progress. I just wish the government could have such programmes where they help the youth through the unemployment phase that lasts until they are involved in some form of meaningful occupation that pays reasonable salaries and wages. Getting a job every five years when there are large scale projects or campaigns is not employment in my view, it is reminiscent to getting crumbs from the master’s table after five years of watching him and the guests feast through the window, and only being able to watch through the window and not being able to enter because there are hefty guards with ferocious dogs at the door. I hate the ‘I am on the outside, I am looking in…’ effect unemployment has on the mind of he or she that knows what it is to be shut out of the system despite having appropriate qualifications.

The main issues at hand these days are unemployment and increasing levels of poverty, and such a government as is in possession of the power to reverse these two maladies should be quick in the correction of the effects thereof. Patriotism of today has like every other entity become an entity of sale; it is bought with the provision of jobs and welfare for those that need it, otherwise, they may just find a master who understands their true basic needs. That we see increasing numbers of street children and orphans in the streets is not a good sign; it may be blamed on AIDS, but hey, a disease can be treated together with its symptoms. We should never be quick to point fingers but be slothful when it comes to dealing with the real problems that plague our society. Of progress and change in the past 50 years? I wonder what you see, and would gladly pay a penny for your thoughts.

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Who will speak on behalf of Basotho?



A clash was reported to have taken place a few weeks ago between police officers, on the one hand, and an MP and his bodyguards, on the other, was always inevitable. It is a direct result of arrangements where people we have lent power to represent us in Parliament now use that power to come up with schemes by which they and their bodyguards should be exempted from equal treatment, and be treated differently from the rest us.

This conduct is anti-seMohlomi, and anti-seMoshoeshoe. And so are many other behaviours we have seen perpetrated by our MPs.

We can expect that those who behave this way will not stop at violation of road traffic laws but will go on to carry contraband in ‘MP’ registered vehicles, and claim exemption from police searches when confronted by the police.
The principle of ‘equality before the law’, and the principle that we should all be treated the same, is a fundamental requirement for the maintenance of social order. MPs who ignore, or violate, it are sources of social disorder. Such MPs have to be regarded as enemies of social order in Lesotho. They should bear in mind that they are opposing society when they oppose the police’s attempts to enforce the law.

We should all obey traffic laws. And, we should all stand in long queues for poor services at the Passport and Traffic Offices. Otherwise, if those we have voted into power use that power to exempt themselves and their bodyguards from poor public services, MPs will have no incentive and interest to work for improved quality of public service.
The failure by MPs and governments to address problems of poor public services is an important reason why everyday many Basotho cross into South Africa in search of better education, better medical services, and lower prices of basic necessities. That traffic includes cars which bear red registration numbers ferrying Lesotho public officials to South Africa for better services.

As always, MPs, Ministers, and other public servants will probably be exempted, or expect to be exempted, from the torment that comes with the new customs regime agreed by Revenue Services (SARS) and Revenue Services Lesotho (RSL), and implemented at RSA-Lesotho border posts. Exemption of officials and MPs will mean that they will have no interest, nor incentive, to lessen its toll on Basotho.
The new regime started early in August 2023. To educate travellers about it, the RSL staff at the Maseru border have been giving people leaflets that explain the new procedures.

Even before this new regime, and others that came before it, many people have always been suspicious that a lot of what people who enter Lesotho go through is not in the Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU) Agreement. For example, it is known that the Agreement is supposed to ensure that citizens of SACU member-countries do not pay tax on a similar item in more than one SACU country. In other words, citizens of SACU member-states should not be taxed twice, or more, for the same item within the SACU area.

But because of the bureaucracy that has been imposed on customs processes at the Lesotho-South Africa borders, many people fall victim to some bureaucratic detail, or other, and end up paying tax in South Africa and Lesotho for a similar item, or service.
In the new regime agreed by RSL and SARS, RSL officials tell us that we are supposed to stamp all receipts of value of M250, and above, at SARS. They say this while distributing a leaflet that says the threshold is M10 000.

For the M250 receipt to be stamped, you need to submit to SARS copies of pages of your passport showing your address in Lesotho, and showing dates on which you travelled to and from South Africa. The implication of this is that if you carry a South African passport you cannot bring groceries into Lesotho for reasons including the fact that Lesotho government cannot claim tax from South Africa on such goods. It is unclear what will happen to a South African tourists coming to Lesotho who might be refused permission to enter with their food.

As said, the requirement that we should stamp M250 receipts at SARS is not on the leaflet RSL officials are giving to travellers. Extraordinarily, RSL officials admit this.
So, at the expense of our time, and standing in receipt-stamping queues that will inevitably grow longer and longer, we are being forced to adhere to a requirement which is nowhere in the official papers.

Has the new regime been negotiated and agreed to by RSL officials alone, or is the government aware of the unreasonable measures that we have to comply with?
It must be said that, at least, for now, the RSL staff remain very helpful, and seem to acknowledge that requirements they are expected to enforce are unreasonable.
It seems nobody thinks of us when government and officials agree to onerous customs measures at our border posts. In part this is because, again, those we have lent power to represent us use that power to exempt themselves onerous procedures that they negotiate and agree to.
We need people who think of us when they negotiate customs and other agreements. Basotho need somebody who can speak on their behalf.

Prof Motlatsi Thabane

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Developing close reading skills



One of the most important skills in adeptly dealing with comprehension-related questions lies in your acquisition and refining close-reading competencies and strategies. The word comprehend means to understand, to fully grasp the essence of a text. When you comprehend a text you will take in, as it were, all the elements of a text, you nibble in, to speak using metaphors, your teeth into the heart of the text. You savour the text, immersing yourself in the texture of the text.

Close-reading involves deep observation and critical analysis of a text or comprehension passage. Close-reading strategies demands that the reader of a text pick even the salient nuances of a text, he or she must take in all the hues and details of a text which are not mentioned directly in the text. This skill takes time to hone, but with constant practice and hard work, it can be done. Let’s do that in a practical way. We are going to focus on a very small extract depicting how one aspiring ironman trained rigorously to realise his dream and the social and emotional toll the training exerted on the man and his family and how, finally he won, much to the happiness and excitement of his family. Here is the extract, as you read, please focus on the use of language to create meaning and effect. Let’s try to discern the feelings of the writer when her husband, eventually became an ironman.

“Because it’s there,’ I’d snarl to anyone who dared question why any sane mortal would tackle an Ironman. I enjoyed mercilessly shaming his less-than-supportive business partner into recognising the potentially boundless benefits of Sam’s well-publicised adventure for their newly-established, fledgling travel company. A flurry of online articles described me as ‘a runner married to a triathlete’ – it took me a few moments to recognise our family and beam with immeasurable pride.
Our son missed having Dad around at the weekends, especially if he woke up after Sam had left to train on a Saturday when sometimes there were tears. But he got used to the different dynamic. He was given an ‘Ironman’ superhero toy as a birthday gift by some relatives and immediately started making it swim, bike and run! The poor child thinks that this is how normal families operate.

Having said all that, watching Sam emerge god-like from the water, power past us on his bike and rocket down the finishing chute, head held high as our kids cheered with the crowd – utterly incredible and intoxicating, one of life’s rare pinnacles of perfection. It had been an epic journey for all of us. I’m so glad we did it. And next year? Well yes, it’s my turn.”

Have you seen how this extract is written in a very captivating way; it colourfully depicts the writer’s feelings of extreme excitement and euphoria when Sam completed the race successfully. The words, “having said all that” are colourful and conclusive. Before these words were uttered, the narrator was expressing her dissatisfaction about Sam’s involvement in sport and how demanding it was emotionally, physically and financially. But, now, the words show that the success overwhelmed even the sentiments or expressions of dissatisfaction registered earlier. One can also see that the writer is overwhelmed by pride and celebration at the success of her husband and she and the entire crowd were immersed in an “intoxicating” experience. Beer intoxicates, so the writer uses this word as a word picture to graphically show the intensity and pervasive nature of the happiness generated by Sam’s victory — it is as if they were overdrunk with the sense of success and accomplishment. Sam’s win evoked all those rare moments in life when all seems to be perfect and in its place; that is why the writer used the words, “life’s rare pinnacles of perfection” just to express that.

Have you also noticed how the writer uses a lot of word pictures to describe her reactions about people’s views regarding her husband’s involvement in the ironman race? One such word, a word picture is “flurry.” The word explains the immensity as well as the amount of excitement and frenzy of publicity generated by Sam’s attempt to be the iron man. This word is apt in describing the writer’s admiration for her husband’s feat and the publicity and excitement generated.
Let’s now focus on another text, let’s focus on how the extract reveals why people hate snakes as a result of the misconceptions they have about them. But notice how the writer arguably writes to endear us to the world of snakes and some of their very positive attributes. Let’s nibble at the text of the extract.

“In the United States, for example, public outcry based on fear and misinformation recently halted a scientifically sound conservation plan for timber rattlesnakes. Another project at the same location that involved releasing eagles was embraced by the community. Rattlesnakes are no less important than eagles. In fact, they may help reduce the incidence of Lyme disease, which affects thousands of people each year, by reducing the number of rodents that harbour this disease. But emotions override facts, it seems, where snakes are concerned. Snakes play an integral role in maintaining balance in the ecosystem – in most ecosystems on earth, snakes can be both predator and prey. When a large prey-population attracts and sustains a large snake population, those snakes become prey for birds, mammals and even other snakes! As predators, snakes keep prey-populations in balance. Snakes provide an easy, environmentally friendly, free and natural pest-control service. But snakes are worth saving not because of what they can do for us, but because of who they are. Snakes share many behaviours with us, behaviours we value. They have friends. They take care of their kids and even their friends’ kids too. Want to help us change how people view and treat snakes? Visit the World Snake Day website.”

While you were still reading, I hope you saw that this is a really captivating text. It focuses on the misconceptions and lack of information we have about snakes, which information gaps lead us into hating snakes without reason. True, snakes are predatory but they also serve an important function in balancing the ecological balance.

Snakes are not that bad, too; and like us humans, they make friends, protect their young ones and the young ones of their friends. Pretty amazing to learn that snakes, too, have friends.

So the point is that there are a lot of falsehoods and misconceptions about snakes and their true habits and functions within the ecological sphere. Often times, they are shown to be cruel, bloody predators that kill in cold-blood. But snakes are also victims from birth and other creatures. Snakes are a natural means to curb diseases which are brought about by rodents. Thus, snakes help in maintaining balance in the ecosystem. Snakes are relational and friendly.
Let’s now hone close-reading skills a little more. In the following extract, the writer beautifully describes her experiences of meeting snakes in their natural habitats in the rainforest and her excitement of seeing quite an exciting array of species. As you read, focus on the writer’s reaction to what she saw and how she is alive to the beautiful scenery around her and she captures that.

“Three hours later, returning from the trek, I felt bubbles of amazement and wonder rising. I’d seen gliding lizards fly effortlessly between trees, intricate dragonflies of infinite varieties and delicately etched, golden frogs. The overcast sky, saturated to the brim, had poured down heavily, drenching the forest, its native creatures, and the handful of humans who happened to be there. Thereafter began the frenzy of activities and sounds that engulfs the woods after a good rain – rhythmic sounds, musical, coordinated and orchestrated, and pleasantly deafening. Ah! My brimming heart and soothed soul enjoyed restful sleep in the tent that first night. Bonfires and loud music are prohibited to avoid any disturbance to animals and hygienic common bathrooms (with hot-water facilities) were appreciated. Everyone was expected to wash their own plates and glasses after every meal. We were encouraged to separate organic waste into the respective dustbins before retiring each night. All inorganic waste went back with you.”

You have picked words which convey meaning so aptly and beautifully. I liked the expression and the choice of words. The phrase, “bubbles of amazement” is so colourful and this is a word picture which shows or reflects the intensity of the writer’s excitement and frenzy at experiencing the tranquil and pleasant experience of being in a rainforest teeming with a vast array of species.

Here we are! Mastering close reading skills is a journey, but an exciting one, which allows you to immerse yourself in the text and allows you to feel all the juicy aspects of the text, as it were.

 Vuso Mhlanga teaches at the University of Zimbabwe. For almost a decade and half he taught English language and Literature in English at high school. Send your comments and questions to:

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The significance of BRICS for the African continent



In the pioneering work titled “Building Better Global Economic BRICs” (Global Economics Paper No: 66), Lord Jim O’Neill, then Chief Economist at Goldman Sachs, introduced the term BRICs, referring to the emerging economies of Brazil, Russia, India, and China. These nations’ economies were experiencing rapid growth, fuelling discussions about their potential to collectively shape the global economy by 2050. In the spirit of this vision, the leaders of Brazil, Russia, India, and China convened for the first time in July 2006, on the sidelines of the G8 Outreach Summit in St Petersburg, Russia. This marked a pivotal moment in cementing the idea of forming a consortium of burgeoning economies.

Subsequently, the Foreign Ministers of these countries assembled in New York City in 2006 on the sidelines of the United Nations General Assembly and embraced the term “BRIC” as originally coined by Lord Jim O’Neill. On June 16, 2009, the inaugural ‘BRIC’ Summit was held in Yekaterinburg, Russia. Later, South Africa was granted full membership in September 2010 during a BRIC Foreign Ministers meeting on the fringes of the UN General Assembly. This led to the alteration of the acronym to BRICS. Building on this progress, South Africa participated in the Third BRICS Summit in Sanya, China, on April 14, 2011.

BRICS is firmly anchored in the principles of mutual respect, sovereign equality, inclusivity, consensus, and strengthened collaboration. The foundation of BRICS rests upon three pivotal pillars: political and security cooperation, financial and economic collaboration, and cultural and people-to-people exchanges. These pillars serve as a robust framework for guiding the alliance’s interactions and ensuring its enduring viability. This sentiment is particularly pronounced as the 15th BRICS Summit, slated for August 22-24, 2023, in Johannesburg, South Africa, convenes under the theme “BRICS and Africa: Partnership for Mutually Accelerated Growth, Sustainable Development, and Inclusive Multilateralism.”

Drawing from the World Bank data from 2022, the combined population of the five BRICS nations stands at 3.27 billion, constituting 41.1% of the global population. These countries’ cumulative Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for 2022 is valued at 25.92 trillion, accounting for 25.8% of the world’s GDP. In contrast, Africa’s total population across its 55 countries is estimated at 1.4 billion, representing 17.5% of the global population. Africa’s overall GDP amounts to approximately US$3.0 trillion, contributing 2.7% to the global GDP.

The African Development Bank’s African Economic Outlook for 2023, underscores Africa’s abundant natural resources — oil, gas, minerals, land, sunlight, wind, and biodiversity —whose potential remains largely untapped and undervalued. The report highlights Africa’s trillion-dollar investment potential in the climate and green growth sectors, offering a promising avenue for private sector involvement.

The UN Conference on Trade and Development’s (UNCTAD) BRICS Investment Report for 2023 reveals that the BRICS economies collectively account for 18% of global exports and approximately $250 billion in foreign direct investment outflows. Notably, the BRICS nations have emerged as significant investors in Africa, with a particular focus on industrial and service sectors, as confirmed by the Africa Development Bank’s Briefing Note titled “Africa and the BRICS: A Win-Win Partnership?” (2003).
Moreover, the BRICS countries have expanded their presence on the continent in terms of foreign direct investment, outpacing traditional partners such as the United States and Europe. This emphasis on harnessing natural resources and boosting agricultural production is also underscored by the UN Economic Commission for Africa’s (UNECA) Report “BRICS/Africa Partnership for Development” (2014).

Leveraging their substantial economic potential, the BRICS nations are optimally positioned to support Africa’s aspirations under the AU Agenda 2063. These countries play a pivotal role in driving investments in natural resource beneficiation, manufacturing, and industrialisation across the continent. They also provide strategic impetus for enhancing productivity and competitiveness, especially within the agricultural sector, through consistent investment efforts.
The emergence of the BRICS New Development Bank offers an alternative to the Western-dominated multilateral financial institutions, which have historically contributed to Africa’s infrastructure development at a gradual pace. This bank holds the promise of financing comprehensive infrastructure projects across the continent, thereby enhancing connectivity through rail, maritime, air routes, and information and communication technology — an aspiration cherished by the African populace.

A symbiotic partnership between Africa and BRICS has the potential to elevate Africa’s status as a significant player on the global stage. This partnership extends to bolstering Africa’s role in global governance structures, including institutions like the United Nations and Multilateral Financial Institutions. The expansion of BRICS to encompass additional nations, including those from Africa, is poised to inspire African countries to assume greater responsibility for funding their sustainable development endeavours.

This approach empowers African nations to form alliances with developed countries that squarely address the continent’s priorities for sustainable growth and economic transformation. Most notably, the BRICS initiative lays the foundation for a multipolar world, contrasting the prevailing unipolar influence exerted by the US and the G7 countries (Canada, France, Italy, Germany, Japan, UK, and the US). This envisioned multipolar world rests on principles such as mutual respect, sovereign equality, inclusiveness, consensus, and fortified collaborations. The International Monetary Fund, Economic Outlook (April, 2023) reveals that the population of the G7 countries is around 776.55 million representing 9.7% of the global population. The GDP for the G7 countries is around US$42.92 trillion representing around 30% of the world GDP.
In a recent interview with Africa Business in June 2023, Lord Jim O’Neill, the visionary behind BRICS, shared his perspective on the future of BRICS and its implications for Africa. He astutely remarked, “the notion that the group of seven ‘industrialised’ or ‘more developed’ or ‘early developed’ (G7) nations can single-handedly govern the world is disconcerting, given their diminishing share of the global GDP. Moreover, the G7 often finds itself aligned with the desires of Washington (US). How then can these select few address the world’s most pressing challenges? This predicament highlights the raison d’être behind my conception of BRICS: to advocate for a more effective global governance model than what the G7 offers.”

It is for these reasons that the enduring partnership between Africa and BRICS embodies a shared commitment to sustainable development, economic growth, and the transformation of global governance structures. The collaborative approach rooted in mutual benefit, respect, and a multi-polar perspective has the potential to reshape the global landscape, ensuring a more inclusive and prosperous future for all.

Advocate Batlokoa Makong is a seasoned diplomat currently working for the African Union. He writes in his personal capacity.

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