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The Far East and poaching in Africa



Lions once roamed the entire breadth of the globe, then humans arrived and the king of the jungle began to fade off the face of the globe. The advent of the colonising human anywhere in the world, it seems, leads to the demise of the indigenous populations of some of the more prominent members of the animal kingdom (which ironically include the selfish human). Whether for self-aggrandisement (where animals get killed to be kept as trophies), religious or mythic purposes, and medicinal pursuits, animals are hunted to extinction to satisfy some human want that upon closer look and scrutiny is simply nonsensical.

From the venom of the mamba and other poisonous snakes being drunk for the sake of power, to the annihilation of entire elephant herds for the sake of jewellery, to the now disgusting habit of believing and holding the false notion that lion and tiger claws and teeth can cure certain chronic rheumatic illnesses, the practice of killing animals to serve some human urge should have stopped a long time ago. It has never been confronted; only pretence at doing it has been going in the political speak of the passing ages.

First to go were the big tuskers in the early days of colonialism of the continent of Africa. Though elephants are essentially matriarchal, the presence of the old bulls in the herd keeps the young bulls in check. Without the presence of the old bulls, the young bulls act out of control and out of tandem with the hierarchical system that ensures that the herd keeps to the patterns that sustain them throughout the seasons on the long migrations to the different grazing pastures and waterholes.

The big tuskers (usually male bulls) became the first victims in the systematic annihilation of the majestic animal species for the sake of making an ivory ring here, an amulet there, and some other item of human embellishment. Naturally, the tusks on the male are larger than those of the female, and this means that the bull becomes the target of the poacher aiming to sell the tusks on the black-market. A practice that began in the days of colonialism goes on unfettered, there are too few animal conservation groups to stem the massacre of animals; there needs to be the involvement of the government and the judiciary when it comes to the conservation of animal species.

Greenpeace is not strong enough, AWF is not powerful enough, the UN and other international organisations and governments need to make a concerted commitment to the preservation of animal species in the world. It is plain hypocritical to be talking global warming and then keeping silent when 16 lions are hacked for their teeth and paws, like it occurred in the first week of 2020 in South Africa. The talk about preservation and conservation of the environment should be one that is aimed at fostering change in human habits and attitudes when it comes to animals and plants.

Termed as exotic, many an endangered animal and plant species have been hunted and harvested into extinction because there was no commitment on the part of the humans who did not understand the repercussions of their deeds or were just too greedy to realise the danger of their acts. The time has come now to confront the culprits head on and name them as the perpetrators of acts that put the well-being of the global climate. One cannot just mow down a top of the food-chain predator without any other measure of controlling the prey’s proliferation which may harm the environment.

The human from the Far East has always had strange culinary tastes, and the appetite of the continent whose population explosion is frankly out of control threatens the stability of the world. Shark populations dwindled to endangered levels because they were being harvested for their fins (shark-fin soup is a delicacy in Japan and is served in traditional Chinese cuisine at weddings, and banquets and as a luxury item).

Tiger populations were hunted for their teeth, paws, and skin to this point where the estimate puts their total population at a measly 3 000. The attention of this strange human practice of killing animals for their parts has come to this point where lions have become the prime target, and sixteen of them were hacked after being fed poisoned chicken at a private game reserve.
The usual lie is that they are used in traditional African medicine (muti), but the truth is that the Far-East and South-East Asia are the prime markets for many of the endangered animal species whose parts are then used in cuisine or traditional medicine. No government in Africa has ever confronted countries that include China, Vietnam, Thailand, Japan and others on the scourge of their strange practices on the animal populations on the continent of Africa.

Reliant on the financial and other forms of aid from the Asian countries, the poor (cowardly) African political leader would rather extend a begging bowl than to address the real danger of the unchecked poaching of endangered animal species vital to the maintenance of the ecosystem. The poaching is funded by the countries of interest, whether legally or via the illicit black-market, but no one will ever stand up and speak in frank terms and ask why there seems to be no cooperation when it comes to the killing of animals for their parts that end up at someone’s table at any of these Asian countries. An article in The Star (26 May 2019) by Don Pinnock revealed that after a four-year probe into rhino poaching that the rifles used were of Czech origin. These CZ (Ceská Zborojvka Uhersky Brod) rifles were designed to kill big game, and were used in the large-scale poaching of rhinos at the Kruger National Park.

Rhino horn is used in traditional Far-Eastern medicine, apparently to treat a plethora of illnesses that include fever, rheumatism, gout and other disorders (which male impotence heads). This means that an animal that takes years to grow a single horn is killed just so that it forms part of a concoction to treat a condition that can be treated with a simple regimen of drugs that can be bought over the counter and without prescription. What does this say about those who engage in this practice?

Rhinos and kingship have always been close in Basotho regnal customs and traditions. Only the king could carry the rhino horn; it is both a sceptre and a symbol of peace. Wherever and whenever there was a dispute the dropping of the rhino-horn kerrie (club) meant that the judgement had been passed and whatever altercation had been going on had to stop.
That we Basotho are keeping quiet as animals that are of such tremendous symbolic value to us and our customs is hypocritical. They may not roam this land as they used to as presented by the early explorers of this land of Moshoeshoe (the old Lesotho that stretched from the Vaal to the sea) as portrayed by R. C. Germond in his 1967 Chronicles of Basutoland , but they still hold a meaning dear to us and valuable to our clan identities. Every clan in this here land bears some animal that is totemic to all members of the clan. This means that whoever is killing our animals for their own private use infringes on our cultural identity, and there should be appropriate acts for the prosecution of figures that engage in such heinous practices as the killing of animals for the sake of individual aggrandisement and personal interest. It is a crime against the environment of this world; it is a crime against the humanity that relies on the flora and the fauna to have climatic conditions conducive for the survival of the human race.

Symbolic and totemic significance of animals varies across the cultures of the different races of the world, and usually, the animal, the plant, or some other natural landscape feature stand as the central figures. The English have the three lions adopted by Richard the Lionheart in the 12th century as their symbol which they bear as the standard in their national flags and in the different sport teams. It is however ironic that early English explorers to Africa would kill lions for sport and keep them as trophies hung on walls as stuffed effigies after taxidermists had fashioned them.
The times are changing, the herds on the plains are getting smaller, the prides are dwindling, and the murders of crows will themselves soon fade as there will be no carrion to scavenge after the apex predators are dead and gone. It does not make sense to think that killing an animal for food or medicine benefits the few individuals. The repercussions stretch far beyond the creature killed, they actually extend to the little ant that feeds on the bones lying in the veld under the blue African sky on the open savannah. We shall surely perish if we do not make Asia aware of the negative impact of their culinary and medicinal practice on the environment of our ancient and sacred continent.

The reality of the matter and actual fact is that our politicians on this continent are on average illiterate individuals elected into office by a people that are not aware of the danger of ignoring the true nature of the simple things. It is always about who wins the poll, never about how we shall be in half a century. It is as if time will soon end and people therefore have to finish everything before the final sun sets.

The truth however, is found in the jest by Jorge Luis Borges, “Hurry, hurry we have a few million years left!” the fact is simple; time is not about to end, we still have quite a long time to go before oblivion. It is not wise that our children’s children shall see all these creatures that form a part of our identity only in pictures or hear tales of them like we do when it comes to creatures such as dodo, the quagga, the tlokwa and other animals that were hunted into extinction to serve some private human appetite. It is not a lie but a fact that the rampant poaching that is going on is there to serve some private interest, and the governments that do not prosecute the perpetrators are in fact accomplices. Our silence against the practice means we are accessories to the crime.

There are those feasts (banquets) where people feed till they are bursting at the seams, none of them ever questions items on the menu, and rather the fascination is with the exotic nature of what is in chafing dish. What we do not understand is that the more expensive or rare it is means that it is probably endangered. It is time as well that we begin to question what is placed on our plates, otherwise we shall end up with a world where Planet of the Apes shall become a reality.

Everything that is evolving develops a defensive attitude dependent on the realities in its environment. Animals are not naturally man-eaters, but the continued killing of their numbers may lead to a scenario where they are no longer human-tolerant. It is time we began to question each other’s culinary, medicinal and other habits, to investigate in-depth the possible repercussions of our deeds.

The man in China drinking some rhino horn concoction, or the family in Vietnam eating orang-utan hands or gorilla hands and feet fail to see danger of their macabre feast. I have always held the simple notion that he who eats a primate shall soon graduate to eating other human beings as Charles Manson did, as Ed Gein and all the other serial murderers did. The old Native Amerindian saying that:

Whatever you do to the animals, you do to yourself…
Rings true when one looks at the current state of the world and the extended droughts followed by storms. No one listened in the 1950’s when the first warnings about global warming and greenhouse gases were made: we are experiencing the results of our obstinacy at this point in time.

Dian Fossey is one of the best human beings whose story I have ever come across, and her words always ring true if one observes the current trend where animals are being killed without restraint. Those that poach do not realise the truth that the real value of life cannot be measured in banknotes, it is in actual terms so valuable that it is priceless: because it benefits all and not just one. The devil’s transaction between the exotic medicine-man or restaurant-owner and the poacher shall surely land us all in hell. The East should begin to acknowledge the full extent of their deed and accept their guilt in furthering the scourge of poaching. They should listen to the words of Dian Fossey that state:

When you realize the value of all life, you dwell less on what is past and concentrate more on the preservation of the future.
The East should stop funding the poaching in Africa if they are well-meaning, if they mean what they say that they need to see the continent progress. Lions should be there, rhinos should be there, pangolins should be there, and so should all the other creatures that God made to live side by side with us.

Tšepiso S. Mothibi

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Harnessing imagery in writing



All writing is imaginative. Every piece of writing reflects the artistry and mental resourcefulness of the writer.

Effective writing also reflects the colourfulness of the writer’s mind and heart; their ability to paint the world to the reader and their capacity or facility of taking the reader with them to beautiful mental and physical and picturesque journeys.

In this piece we focus on how we can hone our creative abilities through the use of imagery and the effect of using colourful and evocative imagery in writing. Let’s go! What if I say, “Learn to prepare wisely and meticulously in time,” you will still grasp the message in a very clear way, isn’t it? But would that be interesting and colourful?

But what if we put it in a colourful manner, “Make hay whilst the sun still shines,” you really grasp the colour and the full import of the message, isn’t it? That’s what imagery does to your writing; it allows you to feel, touch and smell what you are reading.

There is no doubt that the proverb, “make hay whilst the sun still shines” has taken you to the countryside, in a farming community. You hear the bleating of sheep and the neighing of horses.

At the same time, you visualise the good farmer gracefully at work, cutting grass which he is piling in orderly stacks, preparing fodder for his animals in the future. The sun’s rays buoy his attempts and ensure that the hay is prepared with care and colour.

Thus, the point of good imagery is to capture in full detail a world that allows the reader to grasp and enjoy using their five senses. Let me give you a small but beautiful extract which further drives home the point.

“With his machete he detached a brittle clod, broke it on a stone. It was full of dead twigs and the residue of dried roots that he crushed in his fingers.

“Look, there isn’t anything left. The water has dried up in the very entrails of the mountain. It’s not worth while looking any further. It’s useless.” Then, with sudden anger, “But why, damn it! Did you cut the woods down, the oaks, the mahogany trees, and everything that grow up there? Stupid people with no sense!”

Thando struggled for a moment to find words. “What else could we do, brother? We cleared it to get new wood. We cut it down for framework and beams for our hearts. We repaired the fences around our fields. We didn’t know ourselves. Ignorance and need go together, don’t they?”

The sun scratched the scorched back of the mountain with its shining fingernails. Along the dry ravine the earth panted. The countryside, baked in drought, began to sizzle.”

What a colourful piece! The extract aptly paints a countryside’s pulse and the rhythms of seasonal and climate change and how that affects the livelihood patterns of the inhabitants. Have you seen how the sun has been endowed with human-like features?

And the description of the earth assuming human-like features, for instance, “the earth panted.” No doubt, you have seen the earth subdued by the intensity of heat in a way that is similar to a person who is panting.

To paint excellent images the writer needs to have the gift of observation. He/she should be able to observe quite a panorama of things around him and immerse them in the soil of their imagination. Let’s see another good extract where you can discern the link between good images, excellent description and the power of observation.

“It’s in the morning, the fourth watch, to borrow from biblical discourse. It’s damp outside. I brace the slicing chilly weather to go outside. There is a drizzle, constant showers seeping deep down. I pace up at least 400 metres from my hood. I see lined-up, almost cubicle-like houses.

I keep walking, with a spring in the step buoyed by the damp aura wrought by the incessant downpours. I take a deep breath, and step back as it were.

I want to be deliberate. I want to take in everything in my environment; the colours, the diverse hues and plethora of landscape contours. I notice a woman, almost in her forties, from my eye-view assumptions. She is grabbing a basket clutched tenaciously almost close to her big bosom.

She is going to Mbare Musika, the famous agricultural market wherein she intends to buy items for her stall. Behind her, there is a big strapped baby covered in velvet. As she briskly walks, I see her jumping a poodle of water as she observes her stall. I also observe a man, clad in sportswear running trying to cure a big belly.

As I keep watching, I see a woman sweeping her small veranda. I keep walking. I see a woman, plump tending to her garden. She seems animated by the drizzle, thanks to the rains.

I hear another woman, especially her piercing voice, she is selling floor polish. Her voice fills the air. As I drown in the sweet voice, I notice a man staggering. He is filthy. He could have calloused the whole night. He is holding a Black Label quart, speaking gibberish in the air. I keep watching.”

So here were are! Writing is a matter of painting with words, carving images and allowing the reader to experience the impact of all the senses so as to fully grasp the sense of what is put across.

Vuso Mhlanga teaches at the University of Zimbabwe. For almost a decade and half he taught English language and Literature in English at high school.

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Politicians’ propensity to score own goals



Lesotho politicians are often in the habit of scoring own goals. For example, look at the circus that took place in the country at the opening of parliament after the winter break. These events remind me of the article that I wrote with the title ‘Scoring own goals’.

This article appeared in this publication dated March 18 – 24, 2021. It argued that Lesotho’s politicians had a propensity to score own goals.

Many say that education and academia should not involve themselves in politics. This belief is a fallacy. The two are intrinsically intertwined. Education and politics link in a complex way.

For instance, parliament is an organ that passes laws that govern and guide national education policies. The interconnectedness includes the curricula that educational institutions and schools teach. Now, if the National Assembly’s focus is misplaced, important legislative decisions may stall or be derailed by lack of action.

I must make a disclaimer though. I am not promoting any view about a political party. I am writing this article purely as a concerned citizen.

I revisit the own goal tendency of those in authority by assessing the drama that unfolded in politics and governance. I review the recent events that culminated in the failed vote of no confidence against Prime Minister Sam Matekane and his government.

I use arguments from research to demonstrate the fluidity of Lesotho’s democracy. Some politicians often take advantage of this fluidity for selfish gain. I contest that the Prime Minister and his government should treat their adversities as stepping stones to meeting their targets.

A constitution is a living document. Accordingly, to keep Lesotho’s constitution alive, current and relevant, parliament should regularly amend it.

However, in so doing, parliament must be careful that tinkering with the country’s constitution does not compromise the essence of democracy they champion. National and democratic principles must form the dogma that underpins the improvements and amendment exercises.

Personal aspirations, ambitions and creed must not underpin the amendments.

The recent events in and out of the National Assembly make one question the perceptions of the different roles players in the democratic playground in Lesotho have.

First, there was a vote of no confidence that the Speaker ruled to defer subject to the high court’s decision.

Second, there was the allegedly drunken MP’s own goal.

The third is the press conference led by the Commissioner of the Lesotho Mounted Police Services flanked by the head of the Lesotho Defence Force and the Director General of the National Security Services.

It is already a hat trick of own goals. Fourth, there was the statement of the Prime Minister claiming an attempted coup.

The fifth own goal is the moratorium that prevented parliament from holding a vote of no confidence against the Prime Minister before the lapse of three years of his inauguration.

The sixth is the practice of shirking responsibility by MPs. MPs often refer political matters to the national courts for decisions. The seventh, and the mother of all own goals, is the electoral system that Lesotho elected to pursue. The National Assembly has 120 MPs. There are 80 MPs representing constituencies and 40 proportional representatives.

The Commonwealth suggested that Lesotho review the modalities of the PR nominations. Sekatle and the Commonwealth agree that the PR system introduced plurality but at a cost. The cost is what scholars and commentators term minority rights and coalitions.

Also, it compromises accountability and transparency. It undermines the collective intelligence of the voters. Chief Jonathan warned against coalition governments by citing their instability. Political instability plagues Lesotho today.
Sekatle and the Commonwealth cited the overreliance on a threshold in awarding PR seats in parliament, cheapening them.

The PR system ballooned parliament unnecessarily. By comparison, Botswana had a population of 2.6 million in (2021). Lesotho had 2.3 million (2021). Botswana parliament currently has 65 seats, and Lesotho has 120.

A consequence emanating from the PR system in Lesotho is a hung parliament. Since 2012, there has not been an outright majority in the National Assembly. The results yielded chaos. Over that period, PMs constantly look over their shoulders. All these coalitions imploded.

Democracy is about the majority. Politicians must be persuasive to attract votes to achieve the majority. In other words, the PR system rewards failure.

The own goals cause stagnation. MPs score these own goals by serving their selfish interests. They waste time and energy on trivial things. And yet, they receive full-time salaries and earn allowances such as sittings and petrol allowances. How, then, would one explain that the external urging of parliament had to engage in the reforms exercise?

Today, reforms are lying latent. Politicians use the reform programme as an excuse for ensuring that they retain or access power. In the recent correspondences to SADC, the government and the opposition cite reforms and democracy to justify their actions. But as I write this article, there is nothing much that is happening along the lines of these very reforms. Why?

The starting point of any achievement is desire and definitiveness of purpose. The definitiveness of purpose is more than goal setting. It is one’s roadmap to achieving the overall objectives. Elsewhere, I took the definition of desire as explained by the author, Wallace Wattles.

According to Wattles, ‘Desire is possibility seeking expression, or function seeking performance’. All desires began as a thought. Expressing their desires through a manifesto is a means by which parties attempt to concretise them (their desires).

The starting point of an election campaign is the expression of political intentions and goals through manifestos. A manifesto is a public declaration of aims and policy by a political party or candidate. Political parties express their desires for what they will do in their manifestos.

After elections, these desires become the guiding principles and laws. Politically mature voters would then elect political candidates based on these manifestos.

Who instigated and drove the reforms in Lesotho? The contemporary history of Lesotho reveals that external forces pushed the reforms. Basotho merely reacted. They do not own the reform process. High on the list of their drivers are SADC, the US through AGOA and the European Union.

The practice contradicts Wattles’ definition. According to Wattles definition, desire must emanate from inside the individual, or in our case, from Basotho and be expressed outward through actions.

I do not want to comment too much about the involvement of the security agencies in politics. In my view, the relevant bodies, namely, the Law Society of Lesotho, the media and the opposition parties dealt with their involvement adequately.

Former PM Leabua Jonathan often described democracy as the government of the people by the people. But, the meaning of the construct of democracy is fluid and elusive, depending on the position of governance in Lesotho’s political arena.

Authors Hughes, Kroehler and Vander Zanden explain that democracy is a system in which the powers of government derive from the consent of the governed, namely the masses who vote, in which regular constitutional avenues exist for changing government officials.

The authors characterise the system as one which permits the population a significant voice in decision-making through the people’s right to choose among contenders for political office. Also, the system allows for a broad, relatively equal citizenship among the populace.

Lastly, it affords the citizenry protection from arbitrary state action.

Now, the question is whether the recent activities fit all the three criterias. Are the actions of the MPs who moved for the vote of no confidence in the PM’s government acting in line with Lesotho’s constitution and democracy?

This definition of democracy says that regular constitutional avenues exist for changing government officials. The no confidence vote exists in Lesotho’s constitution. But the PM and his security agencies questioned this. They claim the move by the members of the opposition to dethrone the government was a coup attempt.

The drama began when an MP from the ruling Revolution for Prosperity (RFP), Thabo Moea MP, sought an order from the High Court to delay the motion of no confidence against the Prime Minister until after the completion of the reforms process.

The opposition contests that the prayer by Moea stifles a democratic process for self-serving ends. Subsequently, the Speaker cited this impending case to defer the matter.

The constitution of Lesotho stipulates that the legislature is to pass laws, the executive is to approve and execute them, and the judiciary is to expound and enforce them. But a scholar, Nwafor, claims that the courts in Lesotho often intrude into the functions of the other arms of government.

Lesotho ‘s constitution confers powers on three arms of government in such a manner as would ensure cooperation and coordination in governance. The courts ought to bear in mind that the effective discharge of the responsibilities of the courts largely depends on the effectiveness of the other arms of government.

Nwafor brings up the issue of encroachment. He asserts that the powers of the different arms of government in such a manner would guarantee a coordinated discharge of government responsibilities to the nation. But, parliament overly relies on the courts to make political decisions. The practice encourages the risk of overreaching.

The PR electoral system denies Basotho the right to choose their representatives among contenders for political office. Instead, parties ‘hand pick’ these representatives in the pretext of the constituency elections outcomes. Often, these PR members are the ones who lost their constituency elections.

These are the politicians whose constituencies rejected them. They represent their parties and not the voters. They do not account to the voters.

Both the PM and the opposition made presentations to SADC. They overlooked the electorate. Why would SADC have power and not the electorate that elected the politicians to office? Running to SADC, an outside organisation, to settle Lesotho’s internal problems is not a solution. It is scoring an own goal. Lesotho, with its 57 years of independence, should be able to solve its internal problems.

Nonetheless, I have a completely different take from Mokhothu on the issue of the protest march by the RFP. It is unimportant to find the instigator of the protest march. The people to persuade are the voters, the people who put governments into power in a democracy, not external bodies such as SADC.

Napoleon Hill’s creed reads: ‘Every adversity brings a seed of equivalent or more benefit’. Any business person knows that business is a solution to an economic problem. So, the PM and his colleagues in his party who are business people must look at the adversity emanating from the opposition as a seed of equivalent or better benefit.

The government must dig deep to find how the problem may benefit them.
They must identify their failures and use them as stepping stones to success.

Elsewhere, I presented the views of an American scholar and activist, Anderson, who suggested that marginalised communities must cease granting candidates blank cheques. Instead, the electorate must draw their expectations and demand the campaigning party or candidate promise to meet them.

This practice is called quid pro quo. It enforces accountability and transparency.

You scratch my back, and I scratch yours. Quid pro quo is an example of one of the universal laws that demonstrate reciprocity. Reciprocity is the practice of exchanging things with others for mutual benefit. The universal law is the Law of Cause and Effect. It means that for every effect, there is an equal cause. You plant a seed, so shall you reap.

Both the government and the opposition ran to SADC for help. Remember, Matekane is a successful businessman. He has, on more than one occasion, explained that he wanted to use his prowess in business to take Lesotho forward. As a businessman, Matekane has faith in his ability.

Words that come to mind here include self-confidence and trust in himself. He believes in himself. Running to SADC does not display this faith in his ability to deal with problems emanating from his opposition.

Hill argues that riches, or any form of success and achievement, begin with a thought. Faith removes limitations. Matekane must apply his faith as a businessman to become a successful politician.

To summarise, the article explores the events emanating from the fiasco of the no-confidence motion. The individuals who ought to champion constitutional democracy in Lesotho betrayed Basotho by scoring hordes of own goals.

I explored the meaning of concepts that helped me unpack some of these own goals. These were democracy, faith and desire. Also, I coupled these with scholarly research views on the constitution of Lesotho.

I contest that while the opposition may argue that they are within their rights to ruffle the government, the PM must use different tactics. He must display faith and confidence in himself and trust Basotho.

The move to influence the voters to back him deserves a big WOW! He must hold more campaigns to persuade voters to support his government. Voters may make or break him.

MPs waste time in discussing trivial issues that have no bearing on the national agenda. Often, they focus on self-serving matters. The RFP promised to refocus Lesotho towards national development and improving the quality of life.

The article also shows that the PR system does not benefit Lesotho. It diminishes accountability and the principle of quid pro quo. Also, it ballooned the numbers in parliament unnecessarily. It increased political instability by forging formations of coalition.

Politicians must refrain from abusing the judiciary by making them make political decisions. Involving the courts in making political decisions leads to encroachment. Encroachment defies democracy.

In conclusion, Matekane must not allow his detractors to derail his mandate. The same is true for the opposition leaders who attempt to dethrone him. No party campaigned on removing sitting PMs.

Also, the MPs must take the responsibilities that Basotho entrusted them with. It is high time that they make the political decisions instead of shifting them to the judiciary or external bodies.

Matekane, his business associates and technocrats in his government should revisit attributes that made them successful. One such attribute is their faith in their abilities. They must remember that riches (and success) begin with a thought, and faith removes limitations.

Dr Tholang Maqutu


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Painting mood effectively



Writing is not different from beautiful artwork. Just like a skilled painter holding a brush with its broad strokes, the writer occupies the same place and vocation in life. Writing is a work of painting life’s experiences, its hues and beautiful unfolding internal journeys. In this piece we focus on mood and how it can be achieved. Many students struggle with understanding and contemplating the scope and ambit of mood in writing.
It is hard to define and frame the scope of mood in writing. What really constitutes mood? Generally, mood encapsulates the totality of the “air” or “spirit” or “aura” that a certain work of art evokes in the human mind, feeling or sensibility. There is a certain dominant feature or streak associated with a certain work of art, place or person.

There is something which is evoked in our hearts which is associated with a certain place, person or event. Every place or event or person carries or imbues with him or her a certain mood or sensibility; and there is a panorama of sensibilities; for instance, a happy or sombre or whimsical mood. We will now focus on a certain extract and discern how it paints mood.

“He quickly rights himself and keeps walking, but there is an unsteadiness to his knees. He has been given many looks in this quarter – dirty ones, blank ones, sympathetic ones, annoyed ones. For the most part, he had learned to tolerate those than can be tolerated, and ignore those that should be ignored, but the look this woman gave him is not a look one gives to humans but to flies, ticks, cockroaches, fleas…Thato feels anger, then humiliation, then something nameless. If he were in his own country he would turn and confront the woman; but now he’s hurt, wounded, a part of him wishing he were invisible. Breathing evenly, he walks with care, only lifting his eyes once he reaches his own quarters, among his own people. He proceeds to his shack. He could stop by Thapelo’s, his neighbour, where he knows that men and women are already congregated to watch videos from home. Yet, no matter the promise of good fellowship and laughter, Thabo does not join them. Watching videos is a form of forgetting; the 2008 elections, the police with batons, the soldiers with guns, the militia with machetes. Do you remember? Limbs broken. Roofs blazing. I remember.”

This extract is characterised by the intensity of feeling and evokes feelings of sadness, despair and pain. The excerpt paints a harrowing and blood-curdling account which produces a sombre, dull and subdued mood. Thato, the protagonist in the story is in a foreign land. He was impelled to leave his country as a result of political violence which saw many people lose limbs and lives. He feels lonely and unwanted in the foreign land. He feels lost and alienated.

There are sentiments of xenophobia expressed through the glances of citizens of the foreign country he is in. Even if he were to entertain himself together with his countrymen residing in that foreign land, Thato still felt a deep and nagging feeling of being an outcast. Thus, we have made very deep and broad descriptions of the circumstances in which the protagonist finds himself with a view to demonstrate how mood is created in a narrative. The creation of mood feeds into the description of the character’s circumstances, his mindset and the space and place in which he finds himself.

Mood, as we have demonstrated from the portrayal of Thato’s experience, has a link with pathos. Pathos is that streak of sadness which pervades a story and creates empathy in the reader. The aim of effective writing is to move the reader and to impel him towards certain sensibilities which are of an affective kind. Mood, when effectively created, allows the reader to grasp meaning which is not directly said in the story or composition.

Meaning in a story is an interaction between the words in a text as read together with the effect of the words, the tone used and the created mood. There are certain words in a text which do not just communicate, but etches in the reader’s mind certain thoughts, viewpoints and feelings. These words would be so evocative. One such word describes Thato’s deepest sense of alienation in the extract given above.

The word describes him as nursing a wish of invisibility, he felt or wished he were ‘invisible.’ His wish for invisibility is of great importance. It portrays how he was deeply affected by the loathing expressed in the eyes of those looking at him with hate and disdain.

So, here we are! Creating a mood is a craft which takes time to acquire and hone. But when achieved, it makes effective reading and allows the reader to get meaning which goes beyond the text.

Vuso Mhlanga teaches at the University of Zimbabwe. For almost a decade and half he taught English language and Literature in English at high school. Send your comments and questions to:

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