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There is a potted plant I have kept for a few years and it grew out of a root I found in front of my doorstep.
The root was rather thick, almost as thick as my thigh, and surprised at its size, I went and consulted a friend who has turned out to be the best medicine man I know, and whose homeopathic acumen beats the best books on natural medicine that I have so far come across.

It turned out I was very lucky to have found the root, because the root is from a plant whose efficacy in the treatment of various illnesses is nonpareil; I had found a root whose name gave traditional medicine its name, and the root was good for the treatment of human and animal ills of various sorts: this plant is the elixir of life, and the chunk I cut out of a section of the root rests in my pot, and with the passage of the seasons over the few years that I have kept it in my houses, I watch the full process of its metamorphosis.

From the simple shoot that peeks up at me in spring, to the day I have to fold its tired stems back into the pot with the advance of winter; I watch the plant renaissance itself every year, from a single stem (shoot), it grows in length until the tendrils reach well over two metres and I have to tenderly wind them around the 1.2 metre stand in a pattern that ensures that they do not reach the floor where I can accidentally step on them.
I have done the winding, I have watched the growing of my beloved potted plant for a long time, but it is only this year that I am beginning to closely observe the metamorphosis of a perennial plant I have come to admire.

I am in awe of this plant, and this year, I have come to realise one aspect I was not aware of before, and it is that the plant grows a new leaf with the passage of every stage in its growth.
It all begins with a single shoot, but by the end of the year, that single shoot will have given birth to a few hundred leaves that in turn help to maintain the process of photosynthesis upon which the plant depends upon to live and to process the minerals its roots draw from the rich loamy soil I timeously add into the pot every year.
Such is the way of the plant, and it has come to deliver a lesson whose perspectives on life I have since 2002 sought to understand in depth, and one of those lessons I have come to realise is that:
The plant gives of its dead leaves to its roots, for only then will the leaf know that the next generation of leaves will be fed . . .  to be, the leaf knows that present the root should be, for without the root, it cannot be!

I have over the past year and two seasons written more on the lives and the words of dead heroes and legends of our time than I have written on prevailing conditions in life.
This was not because I thought that the present generation has nothing to offer; I just believe that a clear understanding of the past creates a more conducive atmosphere on how we as human beings can plan and live our present life.

Life is like the simple domesticated pot-plant I now keep for various reasons in my room.
There is a source to every event in our lives, and such a source or root cause influences the advent and the transition of the epoch in the individual’s life, and the passage leaves behind a trail that the posterity can see clearly enough to follow.

Where the source was bitter or crooked, the path thereof shall too be of a rickety form, and the fruits it shall come to bear will be bitter to the future generations.
Our trees of life these days bear fruit that is bitter because the leaves up high in the crown do not fall to the ground when the season passes, but rather, the old leaves remain stuck in the branches of the tree, and in the process there are no leaves to shoot forth because the old leaves are blocking their passageway.

Any one man or woman has a story of life to tell, and I for one remember the innocence of the early days in the village and primary school, I remember the mischievous days of intermediate and tertiary education, and I see in the now, the present, and I know; all of the eras in my life grew some leaf that had to fall off at the end of such a season in life, and the rotting of such a leaf fed the tomorrow that followed in the next phase.
We may look dissimilar to the nature around us, but we can never view ourselves outside the immediate circle of our environment.

This fact is true because no matter how hard anyone tries to alienate themselves from the world, the world will always be in their face all the time.
One can shut the world of humanity outside their door, but the spider and the roach as members of the nature around us will easily find their way in through the cracks in the door and build their nests in the nooks and the crannies in the attic and the basement of such a house.

No matter how hard one tries to estrange themselves from the world, they ironically will still have to share the rain and the air and the mould with the rest of the world as is the will of nature.

I guess this is one of the reasons why those figures I discussed earlier were such exceptional individuals in their lifetimes: they all knew that somehow, you oftentimes have to share spaces with your fears and your “enemies”, no matter how uncomfortable it may be. To be is not an easy endeavour, and not to be is a virtual impossibility.

I have watched youth in protest against what they termed as “the old way” when the madness of the fever brought by the pride of their youth got the better of them and had them believing that they could “pioneer” some new way and be “the first” to “achieve” some “goal”, that therefore, the youth fallaciously mean that some “award” was “due” to them.

What they seem to conveniently forget is that, the old way actually cleaned their cotton diapers when they were spit drooling and cry dispensing jukeboxes that gave the old way sleepless nights and constant headaches, and they forget (conveniently) that it is only through the presence of the old way that they got to where they currently are.

This behaviour is the direct result of the unacknowledgement of the African kind, which was in turn birthed by the colonial way that taught Africans to forget the old customs and traditions that taught people to respect each other, to work hand-in-hand with each other, and to ensure that all acts were aimed at achieving the common good of the people.
Garnered in as part of life in the post-independence period, the African still does not know how to give credit where it is due.

It is as if the bad medicine of colonial oppression has not been washed out of the palates of our minds, as if the roots of colonialism have not been excised; because we in a lot of ways still go on to behave like colonial lords when it comes to rule and governance whilst behaving like “savages” as imperialist authors used to refer to us as.

That a country as small as Lesotho has such a large number of political parties giving birth to new political parties born out of them every season, countless church denominations fecund with new cells being born every day, new social media groups of different sorts started on a regular basis, and countless opinions on issues salient to the harmonious running of this kingdom state, is a sign that the recipe for division has ripened.
The concept “divide and rule” is the main term of the day, and it has given rise to favouritism, nepotism, and utter disregard for the contribution certain sectors of society make towards the upliftment of the state.

Only the preachers and the politicians seem to have the most influence, and the artists and the common citizen whose role is pivotal in the election of the government are reduced to being spectators in the arenas where oratorical speeches and fervent sermons are delivered.
The root made of the masses is forgotten by the tree that in every essence feeds off it; that decisions fundamental to maintaining the primal peace of mind we need to live as human beings and society, are made without consultation of the masses, is like a tree that forgets that its stance and sustenance are dependent upon the masses.

One cannot survive without the other, because theirs is a symbiotic relationship where each is an inverse and a reciprocal of the next individual without whom they cannot exist. Such is the nature of the world, and the word says:
Love thy neighbour as you would thyself, covet not thy neighbour’s property and keep . . . for it is in essence yours as well.

I have mentioned that neighbourly love is essential, for no leaf can hate its kin up in the tree for if this happens, the whole tree will die.

We have failed to make significant progress as a country because some leaves in our kingdom’s tree think they are not part of the crown of the tree, that they should get a better share out of the roots from whence all that sustains us as a state comes.
We could have made strides as our neighbours have so far managed, but we believe in “being the best”, in being “the first” strutting around like peacocks so that our closeness in countenance and appearance to the original commissioner and lord of the colonial times can be seen by all.

I have always been of the learned opinion that this country stalls in terms of progress because it does not believe in itself, and the talented youth who are the pollen of the flowers of the tree leave and work in other countries because there are nepotistic gatekeepers bent on preventing their progress.

Where those little bands of talented youths go, they are treated as kings; because those people they go to believe in appreciation as a matter of principle and not just a tool of manipulation as is the case in a lot of instances.
The state should begin to understand that political fights that are in a lot of ways similar to cockfights will contribute more towards the regress of this kingdom than to the progress of her people.

Old leaves are at the top of the tree, close to the rays of the sun (the resources) but very far from the roots (laws and principles) the new leaves (the youth) are closer to.
My personal opinion tells me that the need to please the imperial forces that be is what brought about the demise of this country and other neo-colonies; one sees the old guard still stuck on the same mentalities that raised them, and the realities that come with the advances in human civilisation are ignored: rendering Africa incompetent and leaving it lagging behind all the other continents of the world.

This necessitates the need for a shift in mindset, instead of the constant shifts in power that expend limited resources that could otherwise be better used for the benefit of the nation and the continent as a whole.

The basic complaint of the neighbourhoods is that the youths have become a lawless band of brigands that listen to no piece of advice from anyone; my guess is that the youth are tired with waiting on the world to change.
They are tired of watching the older generations that are by right supposed to pass righteous laws of human conduct and upkeep undress each in public in unrehearsed episodes of slander disguised as speech.

And so the children choose anything that comes their way and choose it as the right way; for they want to be, they have to be: as all the previous generations of mankind have done.
Blame them not therefore  . . . enjoy your political mudslinging, and senseless scuffles over nothing inflated to the status of being something when it is in all qualities nothing new  . . .  for it has been seen before.
Old lies have run their cause and are now laid bare, and the liars have no place to hide, like a band of vampires in the middle of the day in a desert. Let us be, even if you cannot yourself . . .

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Who will speak on behalf of Basotho?



A clash was reported to have taken place a few weeks ago between police officers, on the one hand, and an MP and his bodyguards, on the other, was always inevitable. It is a direct result of arrangements where people we have lent power to represent us in Parliament now use that power to come up with schemes by which they and their bodyguards should be exempted from equal treatment, and be treated differently from the rest us.

This conduct is anti-seMohlomi, and anti-seMoshoeshoe. And so are many other behaviours we have seen perpetrated by our MPs.

We can expect that those who behave this way will not stop at violation of road traffic laws but will go on to carry contraband in ‘MP’ registered vehicles, and claim exemption from police searches when confronted by the police.
The principle of ‘equality before the law’, and the principle that we should all be treated the same, is a fundamental requirement for the maintenance of social order. MPs who ignore, or violate, it are sources of social disorder. Such MPs have to be regarded as enemies of social order in Lesotho. They should bear in mind that they are opposing society when they oppose the police’s attempts to enforce the law.

We should all obey traffic laws. And, we should all stand in long queues for poor services at the Passport and Traffic Offices. Otherwise, if those we have voted into power use that power to exempt themselves and their bodyguards from poor public services, MPs will have no incentive and interest to work for improved quality of public service.
The failure by MPs and governments to address problems of poor public services is an important reason why everyday many Basotho cross into South Africa in search of better education, better medical services, and lower prices of basic necessities. That traffic includes cars which bear red registration numbers ferrying Lesotho public officials to South Africa for better services.

As always, MPs, Ministers, and other public servants will probably be exempted, or expect to be exempted, from the torment that comes with the new customs regime agreed by Revenue Services (SARS) and Revenue Services Lesotho (RSL), and implemented at RSA-Lesotho border posts. Exemption of officials and MPs will mean that they will have no interest, nor incentive, to lessen its toll on Basotho.
The new regime started early in August 2023. To educate travellers about it, the RSL staff at the Maseru border have been giving people leaflets that explain the new procedures.

Even before this new regime, and others that came before it, many people have always been suspicious that a lot of what people who enter Lesotho go through is not in the Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU) Agreement. For example, it is known that the Agreement is supposed to ensure that citizens of SACU member-countries do not pay tax on a similar item in more than one SACU country. In other words, citizens of SACU member-states should not be taxed twice, or more, for the same item within the SACU area.

But because of the bureaucracy that has been imposed on customs processes at the Lesotho-South Africa borders, many people fall victim to some bureaucratic detail, or other, and end up paying tax in South Africa and Lesotho for a similar item, or service.
In the new regime agreed by RSL and SARS, RSL officials tell us that we are supposed to stamp all receipts of value of M250, and above, at SARS. They say this while distributing a leaflet that says the threshold is M10 000.

For the M250 receipt to be stamped, you need to submit to SARS copies of pages of your passport showing your address in Lesotho, and showing dates on which you travelled to and from South Africa. The implication of this is that if you carry a South African passport you cannot bring groceries into Lesotho for reasons including the fact that Lesotho government cannot claim tax from South Africa on such goods. It is unclear what will happen to a South African tourists coming to Lesotho who might be refused permission to enter with their food.

As said, the requirement that we should stamp M250 receipts at SARS is not on the leaflet RSL officials are giving to travellers. Extraordinarily, RSL officials admit this.
So, at the expense of our time, and standing in receipt-stamping queues that will inevitably grow longer and longer, we are being forced to adhere to a requirement which is nowhere in the official papers.

Has the new regime been negotiated and agreed to by RSL officials alone, or is the government aware of the unreasonable measures that we have to comply with?
It must be said that, at least, for now, the RSL staff remain very helpful, and seem to acknowledge that requirements they are expected to enforce are unreasonable.
It seems nobody thinks of us when government and officials agree to onerous customs measures at our border posts. In part this is because, again, those we have lent power to represent us use that power to exempt themselves onerous procedures that they negotiate and agree to.
We need people who think of us when they negotiate customs and other agreements. Basotho need somebody who can speak on their behalf.

Prof Motlatsi Thabane

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Developing close reading skills



One of the most important skills in adeptly dealing with comprehension-related questions lies in your acquisition and refining close-reading competencies and strategies. The word comprehend means to understand, to fully grasp the essence of a text. When you comprehend a text you will take in, as it were, all the elements of a text, you nibble in, to speak using metaphors, your teeth into the heart of the text. You savour the text, immersing yourself in the texture of the text.

Close-reading involves deep observation and critical analysis of a text or comprehension passage. Close-reading strategies demands that the reader of a text pick even the salient nuances of a text, he or she must take in all the hues and details of a text which are not mentioned directly in the text. This skill takes time to hone, but with constant practice and hard work, it can be done. Let’s do that in a practical way. We are going to focus on a very small extract depicting how one aspiring ironman trained rigorously to realise his dream and the social and emotional toll the training exerted on the man and his family and how, finally he won, much to the happiness and excitement of his family. Here is the extract, as you read, please focus on the use of language to create meaning and effect. Let’s try to discern the feelings of the writer when her husband, eventually became an ironman.

“Because it’s there,’ I’d snarl to anyone who dared question why any sane mortal would tackle an Ironman. I enjoyed mercilessly shaming his less-than-supportive business partner into recognising the potentially boundless benefits of Sam’s well-publicised adventure for their newly-established, fledgling travel company. A flurry of online articles described me as ‘a runner married to a triathlete’ – it took me a few moments to recognise our family and beam with immeasurable pride.
Our son missed having Dad around at the weekends, especially if he woke up after Sam had left to train on a Saturday when sometimes there were tears. But he got used to the different dynamic. He was given an ‘Ironman’ superhero toy as a birthday gift by some relatives and immediately started making it swim, bike and run! The poor child thinks that this is how normal families operate.

Having said all that, watching Sam emerge god-like from the water, power past us on his bike and rocket down the finishing chute, head held high as our kids cheered with the crowd – utterly incredible and intoxicating, one of life’s rare pinnacles of perfection. It had been an epic journey for all of us. I’m so glad we did it. And next year? Well yes, it’s my turn.”

Have you seen how this extract is written in a very captivating way; it colourfully depicts the writer’s feelings of extreme excitement and euphoria when Sam completed the race successfully. The words, “having said all that” are colourful and conclusive. Before these words were uttered, the narrator was expressing her dissatisfaction about Sam’s involvement in sport and how demanding it was emotionally, physically and financially. But, now, the words show that the success overwhelmed even the sentiments or expressions of dissatisfaction registered earlier. One can also see that the writer is overwhelmed by pride and celebration at the success of her husband and she and the entire crowd were immersed in an “intoxicating” experience. Beer intoxicates, so the writer uses this word as a word picture to graphically show the intensity and pervasive nature of the happiness generated by Sam’s victory — it is as if they were overdrunk with the sense of success and accomplishment. Sam’s win evoked all those rare moments in life when all seems to be perfect and in its place; that is why the writer used the words, “life’s rare pinnacles of perfection” just to express that.

Have you also noticed how the writer uses a lot of word pictures to describe her reactions about people’s views regarding her husband’s involvement in the ironman race? One such word, a word picture is “flurry.” The word explains the immensity as well as the amount of excitement and frenzy of publicity generated by Sam’s attempt to be the iron man. This word is apt in describing the writer’s admiration for her husband’s feat and the publicity and excitement generated.
Let’s now focus on another text, let’s focus on how the extract reveals why people hate snakes as a result of the misconceptions they have about them. But notice how the writer arguably writes to endear us to the world of snakes and some of their very positive attributes. Let’s nibble at the text of the extract.

“In the United States, for example, public outcry based on fear and misinformation recently halted a scientifically sound conservation plan for timber rattlesnakes. Another project at the same location that involved releasing eagles was embraced by the community. Rattlesnakes are no less important than eagles. In fact, they may help reduce the incidence of Lyme disease, which affects thousands of people each year, by reducing the number of rodents that harbour this disease. But emotions override facts, it seems, where snakes are concerned. Snakes play an integral role in maintaining balance in the ecosystem – in most ecosystems on earth, snakes can be both predator and prey. When a large prey-population attracts and sustains a large snake population, those snakes become prey for birds, mammals and even other snakes! As predators, snakes keep prey-populations in balance. Snakes provide an easy, environmentally friendly, free and natural pest-control service. But snakes are worth saving not because of what they can do for us, but because of who they are. Snakes share many behaviours with us, behaviours we value. They have friends. They take care of their kids and even their friends’ kids too. Want to help us change how people view and treat snakes? Visit the World Snake Day website.”

While you were still reading, I hope you saw that this is a really captivating text. It focuses on the misconceptions and lack of information we have about snakes, which information gaps lead us into hating snakes without reason. True, snakes are predatory but they also serve an important function in balancing the ecological balance.

Snakes are not that bad, too; and like us humans, they make friends, protect their young ones and the young ones of their friends. Pretty amazing to learn that snakes, too, have friends.

So the point is that there are a lot of falsehoods and misconceptions about snakes and their true habits and functions within the ecological sphere. Often times, they are shown to be cruel, bloody predators that kill in cold-blood. But snakes are also victims from birth and other creatures. Snakes are a natural means to curb diseases which are brought about by rodents. Thus, snakes help in maintaining balance in the ecosystem. Snakes are relational and friendly.
Let’s now hone close-reading skills a little more. In the following extract, the writer beautifully describes her experiences of meeting snakes in their natural habitats in the rainforest and her excitement of seeing quite an exciting array of species. As you read, focus on the writer’s reaction to what she saw and how she is alive to the beautiful scenery around her and she captures that.

“Three hours later, returning from the trek, I felt bubbles of amazement and wonder rising. I’d seen gliding lizards fly effortlessly between trees, intricate dragonflies of infinite varieties and delicately etched, golden frogs. The overcast sky, saturated to the brim, had poured down heavily, drenching the forest, its native creatures, and the handful of humans who happened to be there. Thereafter began the frenzy of activities and sounds that engulfs the woods after a good rain – rhythmic sounds, musical, coordinated and orchestrated, and pleasantly deafening. Ah! My brimming heart and soothed soul enjoyed restful sleep in the tent that first night. Bonfires and loud music are prohibited to avoid any disturbance to animals and hygienic common bathrooms (with hot-water facilities) were appreciated. Everyone was expected to wash their own plates and glasses after every meal. We were encouraged to separate organic waste into the respective dustbins before retiring each night. All inorganic waste went back with you.”

You have picked words which convey meaning so aptly and beautifully. I liked the expression and the choice of words. The phrase, “bubbles of amazement” is so colourful and this is a word picture which shows or reflects the intensity of the writer’s excitement and frenzy at experiencing the tranquil and pleasant experience of being in a rainforest teeming with a vast array of species.

Here we are! Mastering close reading skills is a journey, but an exciting one, which allows you to immerse yourself in the text and allows you to feel all the juicy aspects of the text, as it were.

 Vuso Mhlanga teaches at the University of Zimbabwe. For almost a decade and half he taught English language and Literature in English at high school. Send your comments and questions to:

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The significance of BRICS for the African continent



In the pioneering work titled “Building Better Global Economic BRICs” (Global Economics Paper No: 66), Lord Jim O’Neill, then Chief Economist at Goldman Sachs, introduced the term BRICs, referring to the emerging economies of Brazil, Russia, India, and China. These nations’ economies were experiencing rapid growth, fuelling discussions about their potential to collectively shape the global economy by 2050. In the spirit of this vision, the leaders of Brazil, Russia, India, and China convened for the first time in July 2006, on the sidelines of the G8 Outreach Summit in St Petersburg, Russia. This marked a pivotal moment in cementing the idea of forming a consortium of burgeoning economies.

Subsequently, the Foreign Ministers of these countries assembled in New York City in 2006 on the sidelines of the United Nations General Assembly and embraced the term “BRIC” as originally coined by Lord Jim O’Neill. On June 16, 2009, the inaugural ‘BRIC’ Summit was held in Yekaterinburg, Russia. Later, South Africa was granted full membership in September 2010 during a BRIC Foreign Ministers meeting on the fringes of the UN General Assembly. This led to the alteration of the acronym to BRICS. Building on this progress, South Africa participated in the Third BRICS Summit in Sanya, China, on April 14, 2011.

BRICS is firmly anchored in the principles of mutual respect, sovereign equality, inclusivity, consensus, and strengthened collaboration. The foundation of BRICS rests upon three pivotal pillars: political and security cooperation, financial and economic collaboration, and cultural and people-to-people exchanges. These pillars serve as a robust framework for guiding the alliance’s interactions and ensuring its enduring viability. This sentiment is particularly pronounced as the 15th BRICS Summit, slated for August 22-24, 2023, in Johannesburg, South Africa, convenes under the theme “BRICS and Africa: Partnership for Mutually Accelerated Growth, Sustainable Development, and Inclusive Multilateralism.”

Drawing from the World Bank data from 2022, the combined population of the five BRICS nations stands at 3.27 billion, constituting 41.1% of the global population. These countries’ cumulative Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for 2022 is valued at 25.92 trillion, accounting for 25.8% of the world’s GDP. In contrast, Africa’s total population across its 55 countries is estimated at 1.4 billion, representing 17.5% of the global population. Africa’s overall GDP amounts to approximately US$3.0 trillion, contributing 2.7% to the global GDP.

The African Development Bank’s African Economic Outlook for 2023, underscores Africa’s abundant natural resources — oil, gas, minerals, land, sunlight, wind, and biodiversity —whose potential remains largely untapped and undervalued. The report highlights Africa’s trillion-dollar investment potential in the climate and green growth sectors, offering a promising avenue for private sector involvement.

The UN Conference on Trade and Development’s (UNCTAD) BRICS Investment Report for 2023 reveals that the BRICS economies collectively account for 18% of global exports and approximately $250 billion in foreign direct investment outflows. Notably, the BRICS nations have emerged as significant investors in Africa, with a particular focus on industrial and service sectors, as confirmed by the Africa Development Bank’s Briefing Note titled “Africa and the BRICS: A Win-Win Partnership?” (2003).
Moreover, the BRICS countries have expanded their presence on the continent in terms of foreign direct investment, outpacing traditional partners such as the United States and Europe. This emphasis on harnessing natural resources and boosting agricultural production is also underscored by the UN Economic Commission for Africa’s (UNECA) Report “BRICS/Africa Partnership for Development” (2014).

Leveraging their substantial economic potential, the BRICS nations are optimally positioned to support Africa’s aspirations under the AU Agenda 2063. These countries play a pivotal role in driving investments in natural resource beneficiation, manufacturing, and industrialisation across the continent. They also provide strategic impetus for enhancing productivity and competitiveness, especially within the agricultural sector, through consistent investment efforts.
The emergence of the BRICS New Development Bank offers an alternative to the Western-dominated multilateral financial institutions, which have historically contributed to Africa’s infrastructure development at a gradual pace. This bank holds the promise of financing comprehensive infrastructure projects across the continent, thereby enhancing connectivity through rail, maritime, air routes, and information and communication technology — an aspiration cherished by the African populace.

A symbiotic partnership between Africa and BRICS has the potential to elevate Africa’s status as a significant player on the global stage. This partnership extends to bolstering Africa’s role in global governance structures, including institutions like the United Nations and Multilateral Financial Institutions. The expansion of BRICS to encompass additional nations, including those from Africa, is poised to inspire African countries to assume greater responsibility for funding their sustainable development endeavours.

This approach empowers African nations to form alliances with developed countries that squarely address the continent’s priorities for sustainable growth and economic transformation. Most notably, the BRICS initiative lays the foundation for a multipolar world, contrasting the prevailing unipolar influence exerted by the US and the G7 countries (Canada, France, Italy, Germany, Japan, UK, and the US). This envisioned multipolar world rests on principles such as mutual respect, sovereign equality, inclusiveness, consensus, and fortified collaborations. The International Monetary Fund, Economic Outlook (April, 2023) reveals that the population of the G7 countries is around 776.55 million representing 9.7% of the global population. The GDP for the G7 countries is around US$42.92 trillion representing around 30% of the world GDP.
In a recent interview with Africa Business in June 2023, Lord Jim O’Neill, the visionary behind BRICS, shared his perspective on the future of BRICS and its implications for Africa. He astutely remarked, “the notion that the group of seven ‘industrialised’ or ‘more developed’ or ‘early developed’ (G7) nations can single-handedly govern the world is disconcerting, given their diminishing share of the global GDP. Moreover, the G7 often finds itself aligned with the desires of Washington (US). How then can these select few address the world’s most pressing challenges? This predicament highlights the raison d’être behind my conception of BRICS: to advocate for a more effective global governance model than what the G7 offers.”

It is for these reasons that the enduring partnership between Africa and BRICS embodies a shared commitment to sustainable development, economic growth, and the transformation of global governance structures. The collaborative approach rooted in mutual benefit, respect, and a multi-polar perspective has the potential to reshape the global landscape, ensuring a more inclusive and prosperous future for all.

Advocate Batlokoa Makong is a seasoned diplomat currently working for the African Union. He writes in his personal capacity.

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