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To Johnny Clegg-A Tribute



I have undone that distance too many times before, and it seems as if this life of mine is stuck between two shores, as the little ones grow older on the station’s platform, I shall undo that distance just once more. My brothers and my sisters have been scattered in the wind, dressed in cheap horizons which have never quite fitted… And they could not read and they could not write, and they could not spell their names but they took this world in both hands and they changed it all the same.

And from whence they came and where they went nobody knows or cares. Cast between two worlds, they could still be heard to say: Jonka mt’an’ami u nga lahl’ ndliziyo, jonka mt’an’ami u nga lahl’ ithemba lakho mt’an’ami (look my child don’t lose heart, look my child don’t lose your hope).
These lyrics to the Johnny Clegg song Universal Men struck a chord from the first moment I heard it play, and it defined the whole of the man that I came to know and understand intimately, first as a fellow musician, as a human rights activist, and as a scholar I met on a brief research excursion at Wits University. An enigmatic legend in his own right, Johnny Clegg was however a highly magnanimous figure whose mere presence made one aware of the true meaning of humility. To write a tribute that begins with ‘Johnny was’ is a sad tiding, but the memory of the man about which it is being written leaves one with a sense of sweet nostalgia unparalleled.

Jonathan Paul Clegg (OBE-Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, OIS-Order of Ikhamanga in Silver) was born on the 7th of June in 1953 in Bacup, Lancashire, England and passed away on the 16th of July 2019 in Johannesburg. He is the son of Dennis Clegg and Muriel (Braudo) Clegg whose family was of Jewish immigrants from Poland. The young Johnny had a secular Jewish upbringing, learning about the Ten Commandments, but he refused to have the standard Jewish bar mitzvah (the coming of age ritual) and could not associate with the other children at school.

His parents divorced when he was still an infant and he moved with his mother to Zimbabwe (then Rhodesia) then to South Africa at the age of six, spending part of a year in Israel. As an adolescent in the northern suburbs of Johannesburg, he got his first sounds of the Zulu migrant workers music and dance. Under the guidance of Charlie Mzila, a cleaner at the block of flats Johnny and family stayed in. It is through association with Baba Mzila that the young Johnny mastered isiZulu and the isishameni dance styles of the migrant workers. In the process, he was introduced to the maskandi guitar style the Zulu musicians used as accompaniment to their vocal repertoire.

This was deep in the dark days of apartheid, and by his association with black musicians in the still of the night, Johnny Clegg was first arrested at the age of 15 and was charged under the association acts of South Africa banning the interracial association and congregation of people after curfew hours.
He then later met Sipho Mchunu at the age of 17 and they formed the band Juluka (Sweat) and they were profiled in a television documentary in the 1970’s. The band Juluka was made of an equal mix of black and white musicians and they released their first album Universal Men in 1979.

The album faced the wrath of the censorship laws of the apartheid government and the members had to deal with constant harassment from the authorities, rendering the band’s public performances impossible. By virtue of being a mixed-race band, Juluka tested the apartheid laws and had to perform at private venues such as universities, churches, hostels and others to promote their music because national broadcasters would not air their music.

Hidden in the intricate verses of their multi-lingual music were coded messages of protest that were political in nature. This was in sync with the prevailing circumstances of political and racial struggle in the latter days of the apartheid era.
In a 1989 interview, Johnny Clegg ditched the popular label of him being a political activist in a brief answer:
For me, a political activist is someone who has committed himself to a particular ideology. I don’t belong to any political party. I stand for human rights.

Taken from the words of a man who first encountered the fallacy of apartheid as a teenager and understood apartheid’s irrelevance in answering the basic realities resulting from harmonious human interactions ignorant of race, Johnny Clegg in all extent remained a true musician at heart. He delivered the music of Africa without reference to party colour but only as a pure musician would.
The truth his music presents images of an Africa torn by apartheid but still managing to be a brave continent struggling to come to terms with the wars of separation often termed as liberation.

The good thing about the music is that the role of the individual African man, woman and child in not forgotten but is actually put on a pedestal for the entire world to understand the full extent of the daily struggles in the face of divisive racial segregation policies and which are enforced by the government.
The musician in him fostered a spirit of unity despite the divisions nurtured by apartheid policy. The songs he composed were meant to address the social maladies and injustices on the different types of individuals existent in society. In an earlier article on social cohesion, his words are noted as the tie that binds society, addressing the conditions of the oppressed. The articles states:

We could not see the world as that Johnny Clegg song Universal Men sees it, expressing it through the lives of the men and the women (who sadly are never acknowledged for their roles as the suppliers of the food, the company for the injured, and the general welfare officers of the labourers on the various construction sites across the world). Though the song only seems to note men, the children on the pavement are not forgotten, and I guess to a certain extent the lonely women and mothers they leave at home are acknowledged in the chorus:
Jonka mtan’ami, u nga lahl’ indliziyo…

Through his naturally rebellious character, and the reality that he was in fact an outsider in the communities he grew up in, it seems that Johnny Clegg found his home among the underclass of common segregated society. This is the place of abject poverty and dreadful living conditions, but it is also a place where all the wealth of a society’s culture is found. Being some kind of melting pot itself, the Johannesburg in which he lived and died was the lure for many of the migrant labourers that came to search for employment and livelihood from the city’s early days in the mid-1800’s.

Those who came did not forget the songs of their homelands in Kwa-Zulu, the Transkei, Lesotho, Zimbabwe, Zambia, E Swatini, Mozambique, Ciskei and the other homelands of the different tribes living in Southern Africa. By adopting and adapting a music style different from the conventional styles of his own race group, Johnny Clegg became a living epitome and example that racial division is a farce that cannot define human potential or deny the human spirit of unity ignorant of race, culture, or credo.

One can assume that the travail of the white boy carrying messages of hope for distances far from the homeland to the entire world could be one lonely undertaking if he did not move in company with fellow human beings of a different race. A creative outlook assumes that those of a different culture and language do speak in a tongue that one can understand if they bother to listen as closely as Johnny Clegg did under the tutelage of the Zulu maestros on the rooftop of the block of flats where he grew up.
The young white boy knew that they the men singing in chorus were actually encouraging each other with the songs they imparted to him above as they carried the heavy burden of being third class citizens in the land of their forefathers as they had done across the varying landscapes on the journey across the expanse of history in the heart of the colonial rule.

The lesson from the musician that defied the odds and presumed tendencies in the system of apartheid to the individual human mind is that there should be a culture of encouragement between our different cultures and selves living in human communities across the globe. The regression of the world in terms of fostering the spirit of peace stems from constant focus on only the most negative aspects of our behaviour.

Largely dependent on the colonial spirit of individualism, the world has managed thus far to create abysses where once there were no fissures. Apartheid survived by first breaking down the most salient and basic units of human connection and then moving on to squander whatever resources there were to keep the people well enough to care about each other.
The migrant worker had no voice, but the generosity to share whatever knowledge of their culture with the little boy at the end of the day gave birth to a musician that taught the world that racial segregation as fostered by apartheid was in actual fact only a lie meant to divide the majority to furnish the looting of the land and the labour reserve. The musician became the voice that brought the lament of a cleaner to the attention of the world.

The song, Africa, bears a chorus that laments the plight of the black people of the continent, toiling under heinous conditions, chinning it on despite constant travail, and still being able to reveal tremendous acts of kindness despite the nervous conditions and perilous times. One cannot help but be entranced by the cry:
Afrika ku khala abancwele, eAfrika kukhala abancwele wena (in Africa the saints weep) Hlala Hlala he was born in the African dawn and orphaned to the land, so gentle in the eye he was as any woman’s child…There’s a song to be sung that can heal these broken men, Let us sing and we’ll walk through the dark, Hand in hand, hand in hand…

It takes personal decision on the part of the griot of a people to address wrongs inflicted on the masses by the ruling classes. It takes a brave heart to risk one’s life for the sake of the welfare of other people, and Johnny Clegg seems to have risked more than just his life in the process of forming Juluka and Savuka to address the wrong that the apartheid system was to Africa and the human race.
Banned and censored, declared a pariah by fellow musicians in overseas organisations for playing for local South African audiences, it did not deter the progress of Jonathan Clegg’s commitment to being an advocate of human rights and an activist for social equality. Through song, the Johannesburg boy that fell in love with migrant music became the voice of a movement that succeeded in the uprooting of segregationist policies of apartheid. There is no better song than the song that frees the people not only in mind but that which also frees them in deed.

Through and through, he was the voice of a people silenced by an oppressive system, and by and by the oppressor had to bow to the words of the White Zulu shouting at the Jericho walls of Apartheid.
From the Scatterlings of Africa to Asimbonanga, the music that the maestro from eJoni brought to the world was meant to unite us all, to remind us of our visceral commonality, and to help us to forget our epidermal difference. More Zulu than a lot of ‘blacks’ u bab’ Johnny remains the epitome of what the African meant when he or she coined the term Ubuntu/Botho.

It is a Samaritan term that knows no race, creed or colour, and it seems that he lived it until the moment that he made the crossing on to the other side where we shall one day meet again. Now one understands the comfort in the lyrics to the song The Crossing:
O siyeza sizofika we baba no ma, siyagudla lo mhlaba, siyawela laphesheya ku lezo ntaba ezimnyama, lapha so bheka phansi, konke ukuhlupheka
Indeed we arrive soon in that land beyond where all our pain is forgotten and our troubles go away. I hope the same has happened for Bab’ Johnny Clegg. Hamba Kahle Wakithi.

Tsépiso Mothibi

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Harnessing imagery in writing



All writing is imaginative. Every piece of writing reflects the artistry and mental resourcefulness of the writer.

Effective writing also reflects the colourfulness of the writer’s mind and heart; their ability to paint the world to the reader and their capacity or facility of taking the reader with them to beautiful mental and physical and picturesque journeys.

In this piece we focus on how we can hone our creative abilities through the use of imagery and the effect of using colourful and evocative imagery in writing. Let’s go! What if I say, “Learn to prepare wisely and meticulously in time,” you will still grasp the message in a very clear way, isn’t it? But would that be interesting and colourful?

But what if we put it in a colourful manner, “Make hay whilst the sun still shines,” you really grasp the colour and the full import of the message, isn’t it? That’s what imagery does to your writing; it allows you to feel, touch and smell what you are reading.

There is no doubt that the proverb, “make hay whilst the sun still shines” has taken you to the countryside, in a farming community. You hear the bleating of sheep and the neighing of horses.

At the same time, you visualise the good farmer gracefully at work, cutting grass which he is piling in orderly stacks, preparing fodder for his animals in the future. The sun’s rays buoy his attempts and ensure that the hay is prepared with care and colour.

Thus, the point of good imagery is to capture in full detail a world that allows the reader to grasp and enjoy using their five senses. Let me give you a small but beautiful extract which further drives home the point.

“With his machete he detached a brittle clod, broke it on a stone. It was full of dead twigs and the residue of dried roots that he crushed in his fingers.

“Look, there isn’t anything left. The water has dried up in the very entrails of the mountain. It’s not worth while looking any further. It’s useless.” Then, with sudden anger, “But why, damn it! Did you cut the woods down, the oaks, the mahogany trees, and everything that grow up there? Stupid people with no sense!”

Thando struggled for a moment to find words. “What else could we do, brother? We cleared it to get new wood. We cut it down for framework and beams for our hearts. We repaired the fences around our fields. We didn’t know ourselves. Ignorance and need go together, don’t they?”

The sun scratched the scorched back of the mountain with its shining fingernails. Along the dry ravine the earth panted. The countryside, baked in drought, began to sizzle.”

What a colourful piece! The extract aptly paints a countryside’s pulse and the rhythms of seasonal and climate change and how that affects the livelihood patterns of the inhabitants. Have you seen how the sun has been endowed with human-like features?

And the description of the earth assuming human-like features, for instance, “the earth panted.” No doubt, you have seen the earth subdued by the intensity of heat in a way that is similar to a person who is panting.

To paint excellent images the writer needs to have the gift of observation. He/she should be able to observe quite a panorama of things around him and immerse them in the soil of their imagination. Let’s see another good extract where you can discern the link between good images, excellent description and the power of observation.

“It’s in the morning, the fourth watch, to borrow from biblical discourse. It’s damp outside. I brace the slicing chilly weather to go outside. There is a drizzle, constant showers seeping deep down. I pace up at least 400 metres from my hood. I see lined-up, almost cubicle-like houses.

I keep walking, with a spring in the step buoyed by the damp aura wrought by the incessant downpours. I take a deep breath, and step back as it were.

I want to be deliberate. I want to take in everything in my environment; the colours, the diverse hues and plethora of landscape contours. I notice a woman, almost in her forties, from my eye-view assumptions. She is grabbing a basket clutched tenaciously almost close to her big bosom.

She is going to Mbare Musika, the famous agricultural market wherein she intends to buy items for her stall. Behind her, there is a big strapped baby covered in velvet. As she briskly walks, I see her jumping a poodle of water as she observes her stall. I also observe a man, clad in sportswear running trying to cure a big belly.

As I keep watching, I see a woman sweeping her small veranda. I keep walking. I see a woman, plump tending to her garden. She seems animated by the drizzle, thanks to the rains.

I hear another woman, especially her piercing voice, she is selling floor polish. Her voice fills the air. As I drown in the sweet voice, I notice a man staggering. He is filthy. He could have calloused the whole night. He is holding a Black Label quart, speaking gibberish in the air. I keep watching.”

So here were are! Writing is a matter of painting with words, carving images and allowing the reader to experience the impact of all the senses so as to fully grasp the sense of what is put across.

Vuso Mhlanga teaches at the University of Zimbabwe. For almost a decade and half he taught English language and Literature in English at high school.

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Politicians’ propensity to score own goals



Lesotho politicians are often in the habit of scoring own goals. For example, look at the circus that took place in the country at the opening of parliament after the winter break. These events remind me of the article that I wrote with the title ‘Scoring own goals’.

This article appeared in this publication dated March 18 – 24, 2021. It argued that Lesotho’s politicians had a propensity to score own goals.

Many say that education and academia should not involve themselves in politics. This belief is a fallacy. The two are intrinsically intertwined. Education and politics link in a complex way.

For instance, parliament is an organ that passes laws that govern and guide national education policies. The interconnectedness includes the curricula that educational institutions and schools teach. Now, if the National Assembly’s focus is misplaced, important legislative decisions may stall or be derailed by lack of action.

I must make a disclaimer though. I am not promoting any view about a political party. I am writing this article purely as a concerned citizen.

I revisit the own goal tendency of those in authority by assessing the drama that unfolded in politics and governance. I review the recent events that culminated in the failed vote of no confidence against Prime Minister Sam Matekane and his government.

I use arguments from research to demonstrate the fluidity of Lesotho’s democracy. Some politicians often take advantage of this fluidity for selfish gain. I contest that the Prime Minister and his government should treat their adversities as stepping stones to meeting their targets.

A constitution is a living document. Accordingly, to keep Lesotho’s constitution alive, current and relevant, parliament should regularly amend it.

However, in so doing, parliament must be careful that tinkering with the country’s constitution does not compromise the essence of democracy they champion. National and democratic principles must form the dogma that underpins the improvements and amendment exercises.

Personal aspirations, ambitions and creed must not underpin the amendments.

The recent events in and out of the National Assembly make one question the perceptions of the different roles players in the democratic playground in Lesotho have.

First, there was a vote of no confidence that the Speaker ruled to defer subject to the high court’s decision.

Second, there was the allegedly drunken MP’s own goal.

The third is the press conference led by the Commissioner of the Lesotho Mounted Police Services flanked by the head of the Lesotho Defence Force and the Director General of the National Security Services.

It is already a hat trick of own goals. Fourth, there was the statement of the Prime Minister claiming an attempted coup.

The fifth own goal is the moratorium that prevented parliament from holding a vote of no confidence against the Prime Minister before the lapse of three years of his inauguration.

The sixth is the practice of shirking responsibility by MPs. MPs often refer political matters to the national courts for decisions. The seventh, and the mother of all own goals, is the electoral system that Lesotho elected to pursue. The National Assembly has 120 MPs. There are 80 MPs representing constituencies and 40 proportional representatives.

The Commonwealth suggested that Lesotho review the modalities of the PR nominations. Sekatle and the Commonwealth agree that the PR system introduced plurality but at a cost. The cost is what scholars and commentators term minority rights and coalitions.

Also, it compromises accountability and transparency. It undermines the collective intelligence of the voters. Chief Jonathan warned against coalition governments by citing their instability. Political instability plagues Lesotho today.
Sekatle and the Commonwealth cited the overreliance on a threshold in awarding PR seats in parliament, cheapening them.

The PR system ballooned parliament unnecessarily. By comparison, Botswana had a population of 2.6 million in (2021). Lesotho had 2.3 million (2021). Botswana parliament currently has 65 seats, and Lesotho has 120.

A consequence emanating from the PR system in Lesotho is a hung parliament. Since 2012, there has not been an outright majority in the National Assembly. The results yielded chaos. Over that period, PMs constantly look over their shoulders. All these coalitions imploded.

Democracy is about the majority. Politicians must be persuasive to attract votes to achieve the majority. In other words, the PR system rewards failure.

The own goals cause stagnation. MPs score these own goals by serving their selfish interests. They waste time and energy on trivial things. And yet, they receive full-time salaries and earn allowances such as sittings and petrol allowances. How, then, would one explain that the external urging of parliament had to engage in the reforms exercise?

Today, reforms are lying latent. Politicians use the reform programme as an excuse for ensuring that they retain or access power. In the recent correspondences to SADC, the government and the opposition cite reforms and democracy to justify their actions. But as I write this article, there is nothing much that is happening along the lines of these very reforms. Why?

The starting point of any achievement is desire and definitiveness of purpose. The definitiveness of purpose is more than goal setting. It is one’s roadmap to achieving the overall objectives. Elsewhere, I took the definition of desire as explained by the author, Wallace Wattles.

According to Wattles, ‘Desire is possibility seeking expression, or function seeking performance’. All desires began as a thought. Expressing their desires through a manifesto is a means by which parties attempt to concretise them (their desires).

The starting point of an election campaign is the expression of political intentions and goals through manifestos. A manifesto is a public declaration of aims and policy by a political party or candidate. Political parties express their desires for what they will do in their manifestos.

After elections, these desires become the guiding principles and laws. Politically mature voters would then elect political candidates based on these manifestos.

Who instigated and drove the reforms in Lesotho? The contemporary history of Lesotho reveals that external forces pushed the reforms. Basotho merely reacted. They do not own the reform process. High on the list of their drivers are SADC, the US through AGOA and the European Union.

The practice contradicts Wattles’ definition. According to Wattles definition, desire must emanate from inside the individual, or in our case, from Basotho and be expressed outward through actions.

I do not want to comment too much about the involvement of the security agencies in politics. In my view, the relevant bodies, namely, the Law Society of Lesotho, the media and the opposition parties dealt with their involvement adequately.

Former PM Leabua Jonathan often described democracy as the government of the people by the people. But, the meaning of the construct of democracy is fluid and elusive, depending on the position of governance in Lesotho’s political arena.

Authors Hughes, Kroehler and Vander Zanden explain that democracy is a system in which the powers of government derive from the consent of the governed, namely the masses who vote, in which regular constitutional avenues exist for changing government officials.

The authors characterise the system as one which permits the population a significant voice in decision-making through the people’s right to choose among contenders for political office. Also, the system allows for a broad, relatively equal citizenship among the populace.

Lastly, it affords the citizenry protection from arbitrary state action.

Now, the question is whether the recent activities fit all the three criterias. Are the actions of the MPs who moved for the vote of no confidence in the PM’s government acting in line with Lesotho’s constitution and democracy?

This definition of democracy says that regular constitutional avenues exist for changing government officials. The no confidence vote exists in Lesotho’s constitution. But the PM and his security agencies questioned this. They claim the move by the members of the opposition to dethrone the government was a coup attempt.

The drama began when an MP from the ruling Revolution for Prosperity (RFP), Thabo Moea MP, sought an order from the High Court to delay the motion of no confidence against the Prime Minister until after the completion of the reforms process.

The opposition contests that the prayer by Moea stifles a democratic process for self-serving ends. Subsequently, the Speaker cited this impending case to defer the matter.

The constitution of Lesotho stipulates that the legislature is to pass laws, the executive is to approve and execute them, and the judiciary is to expound and enforce them. But a scholar, Nwafor, claims that the courts in Lesotho often intrude into the functions of the other arms of government.

Lesotho ‘s constitution confers powers on three arms of government in such a manner as would ensure cooperation and coordination in governance. The courts ought to bear in mind that the effective discharge of the responsibilities of the courts largely depends on the effectiveness of the other arms of government.

Nwafor brings up the issue of encroachment. He asserts that the powers of the different arms of government in such a manner would guarantee a coordinated discharge of government responsibilities to the nation. But, parliament overly relies on the courts to make political decisions. The practice encourages the risk of overreaching.

The PR electoral system denies Basotho the right to choose their representatives among contenders for political office. Instead, parties ‘hand pick’ these representatives in the pretext of the constituency elections outcomes. Often, these PR members are the ones who lost their constituency elections.

These are the politicians whose constituencies rejected them. They represent their parties and not the voters. They do not account to the voters.

Both the PM and the opposition made presentations to SADC. They overlooked the electorate. Why would SADC have power and not the electorate that elected the politicians to office? Running to SADC, an outside organisation, to settle Lesotho’s internal problems is not a solution. It is scoring an own goal. Lesotho, with its 57 years of independence, should be able to solve its internal problems.

Nonetheless, I have a completely different take from Mokhothu on the issue of the protest march by the RFP. It is unimportant to find the instigator of the protest march. The people to persuade are the voters, the people who put governments into power in a democracy, not external bodies such as SADC.

Napoleon Hill’s creed reads: ‘Every adversity brings a seed of equivalent or more benefit’. Any business person knows that business is a solution to an economic problem. So, the PM and his colleagues in his party who are business people must look at the adversity emanating from the opposition as a seed of equivalent or better benefit.

The government must dig deep to find how the problem may benefit them.
They must identify their failures and use them as stepping stones to success.

Elsewhere, I presented the views of an American scholar and activist, Anderson, who suggested that marginalised communities must cease granting candidates blank cheques. Instead, the electorate must draw their expectations and demand the campaigning party or candidate promise to meet them.

This practice is called quid pro quo. It enforces accountability and transparency.

You scratch my back, and I scratch yours. Quid pro quo is an example of one of the universal laws that demonstrate reciprocity. Reciprocity is the practice of exchanging things with others for mutual benefit. The universal law is the Law of Cause and Effect. It means that for every effect, there is an equal cause. You plant a seed, so shall you reap.

Both the government and the opposition ran to SADC for help. Remember, Matekane is a successful businessman. He has, on more than one occasion, explained that he wanted to use his prowess in business to take Lesotho forward. As a businessman, Matekane has faith in his ability.

Words that come to mind here include self-confidence and trust in himself. He believes in himself. Running to SADC does not display this faith in his ability to deal with problems emanating from his opposition.

Hill argues that riches, or any form of success and achievement, begin with a thought. Faith removes limitations. Matekane must apply his faith as a businessman to become a successful politician.

To summarise, the article explores the events emanating from the fiasco of the no-confidence motion. The individuals who ought to champion constitutional democracy in Lesotho betrayed Basotho by scoring hordes of own goals.

I explored the meaning of concepts that helped me unpack some of these own goals. These were democracy, faith and desire. Also, I coupled these with scholarly research views on the constitution of Lesotho.

I contest that while the opposition may argue that they are within their rights to ruffle the government, the PM must use different tactics. He must display faith and confidence in himself and trust Basotho.

The move to influence the voters to back him deserves a big WOW! He must hold more campaigns to persuade voters to support his government. Voters may make or break him.

MPs waste time in discussing trivial issues that have no bearing on the national agenda. Often, they focus on self-serving matters. The RFP promised to refocus Lesotho towards national development and improving the quality of life.

The article also shows that the PR system does not benefit Lesotho. It diminishes accountability and the principle of quid pro quo. Also, it ballooned the numbers in parliament unnecessarily. It increased political instability by forging formations of coalition.

Politicians must refrain from abusing the judiciary by making them make political decisions. Involving the courts in making political decisions leads to encroachment. Encroachment defies democracy.

In conclusion, Matekane must not allow his detractors to derail his mandate. The same is true for the opposition leaders who attempt to dethrone him. No party campaigned on removing sitting PMs.

Also, the MPs must take the responsibilities that Basotho entrusted them with. It is high time that they make the political decisions instead of shifting them to the judiciary or external bodies.

Matekane, his business associates and technocrats in his government should revisit attributes that made them successful. One such attribute is their faith in their abilities. They must remember that riches (and success) begin with a thought, and faith removes limitations.

Dr Tholang Maqutu


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Painting mood effectively



Writing is not different from beautiful artwork. Just like a skilled painter holding a brush with its broad strokes, the writer occupies the same place and vocation in life. Writing is a work of painting life’s experiences, its hues and beautiful unfolding internal journeys. In this piece we focus on mood and how it can be achieved. Many students struggle with understanding and contemplating the scope and ambit of mood in writing.
It is hard to define and frame the scope of mood in writing. What really constitutes mood? Generally, mood encapsulates the totality of the “air” or “spirit” or “aura” that a certain work of art evokes in the human mind, feeling or sensibility. There is a certain dominant feature or streak associated with a certain work of art, place or person.

There is something which is evoked in our hearts which is associated with a certain place, person or event. Every place or event or person carries or imbues with him or her a certain mood or sensibility; and there is a panorama of sensibilities; for instance, a happy or sombre or whimsical mood. We will now focus on a certain extract and discern how it paints mood.

“He quickly rights himself and keeps walking, but there is an unsteadiness to his knees. He has been given many looks in this quarter – dirty ones, blank ones, sympathetic ones, annoyed ones. For the most part, he had learned to tolerate those than can be tolerated, and ignore those that should be ignored, but the look this woman gave him is not a look one gives to humans but to flies, ticks, cockroaches, fleas…Thato feels anger, then humiliation, then something nameless. If he were in his own country he would turn and confront the woman; but now he’s hurt, wounded, a part of him wishing he were invisible. Breathing evenly, he walks with care, only lifting his eyes once he reaches his own quarters, among his own people. He proceeds to his shack. He could stop by Thapelo’s, his neighbour, where he knows that men and women are already congregated to watch videos from home. Yet, no matter the promise of good fellowship and laughter, Thabo does not join them. Watching videos is a form of forgetting; the 2008 elections, the police with batons, the soldiers with guns, the militia with machetes. Do you remember? Limbs broken. Roofs blazing. I remember.”

This extract is characterised by the intensity of feeling and evokes feelings of sadness, despair and pain. The excerpt paints a harrowing and blood-curdling account which produces a sombre, dull and subdued mood. Thato, the protagonist in the story is in a foreign land. He was impelled to leave his country as a result of political violence which saw many people lose limbs and lives. He feels lonely and unwanted in the foreign land. He feels lost and alienated.

There are sentiments of xenophobia expressed through the glances of citizens of the foreign country he is in. Even if he were to entertain himself together with his countrymen residing in that foreign land, Thato still felt a deep and nagging feeling of being an outcast. Thus, we have made very deep and broad descriptions of the circumstances in which the protagonist finds himself with a view to demonstrate how mood is created in a narrative. The creation of mood feeds into the description of the character’s circumstances, his mindset and the space and place in which he finds himself.

Mood, as we have demonstrated from the portrayal of Thato’s experience, has a link with pathos. Pathos is that streak of sadness which pervades a story and creates empathy in the reader. The aim of effective writing is to move the reader and to impel him towards certain sensibilities which are of an affective kind. Mood, when effectively created, allows the reader to grasp meaning which is not directly said in the story or composition.

Meaning in a story is an interaction between the words in a text as read together with the effect of the words, the tone used and the created mood. There are certain words in a text which do not just communicate, but etches in the reader’s mind certain thoughts, viewpoints and feelings. These words would be so evocative. One such word describes Thato’s deepest sense of alienation in the extract given above.

The word describes him as nursing a wish of invisibility, he felt or wished he were ‘invisible.’ His wish for invisibility is of great importance. It portrays how he was deeply affected by the loathing expressed in the eyes of those looking at him with hate and disdain.

So, here we are! Creating a mood is a craft which takes time to acquire and hone. But when achieved, it makes effective reading and allows the reader to get meaning which goes beyond the text.

Vuso Mhlanga teaches at the University of Zimbabwe. For almost a decade and half he taught English language and Literature in English at high school. Send your comments and questions to:

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