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We Africans are a people well known for their prowess in song, talented in the recital of beautiful intricately arranged verses of poetry, and we can match the voices and the words with an innate sense of rhythm and dance; we are unequalled when it comes to the expression of music, and our choreography is the finest in the whole wide world! I used to see weddings when I was young and they were happy affairs where the concept of mirth was explored to its fullest.  Wedding rehearsals began very early at the bride’s place, where a white flag stood hung on a high pole after successful bridal price negotiations and engagement, for the whole village to see that such a home’s daughter would soon be betrothed.

Young men and women would start practising the wedding songs as soon as this stage was over in preparation for the big day, the wedding day in which the gourmands could eat until they literally burst their tummies burst at the seams stuffing themselves with the sumptuous buffets and seven coloured desserts on the wedding day. The drunk would drink and get drunk until they forgot their own names, and forgot to which house they had come from on the day of “the white wedding”. Meanwhile, for weeks or months before the big day, the sarcastic wedding songs and the choreographic dance moves would be practiced by young women and men at the bride’s home. The same methodical rehearsals would be going on at the groom’s place in preparation for the big day; a day in which one side (the bride’s party) would mock the groom’s suit as shabby and label him as old and haggard whilst in the same breath praising the bride as a rare diamond which the “beastly and ugly” groom was said to have been lucky to find.

The groom’s company would retaliate with their own sarcastic and witty song, labelling the bride as an old hag of a spinster fortunate to have got the man she was marrying on the day, and ordering her to perform chores.  Weddings were back then an interesting affair that kept everyone in the village entertained, and there were exceptional wedding singers who always held the white flag, conducting their choirs with finesse, and the wedding songs . . .  the wedding songs were actually timeless classics that had crossed a few generations, having been passed from one generation to the next; their humorous sense of sarcasm and wit remains unsurpassed in my mind. I have been fortunate enough to have encountered the culture of the wedding song in its last years, before the advent of those snobbish affairs posing as weddings, where the music is played from blaring speakers, and the bride and the groom sit bored on their ribbon-decorated chairs.

I grew up in an age where photographers were kings and one needed not to travel to some far-away spot just so that they could have their wedding pictures taken.
I grew up in an age where wedding meals were not served only to the “invited”, but to all those congregated to witness the union of body, mind, and soul of the couple who from that day onwards become one after the rings were exchanged and the priest had blessed the union.  The weddings of those days lasted three days (if I am to exclude the previous months of intensive rehearsal for the wedding), and the food was everywhere, literally; one could eat until they became a ruminant, and one could quaff until they forgot their first and middle names, until the only name they could clearly remember was their father’s (and would declare in slurred tones “I am the son of so and so . . . ”).  I thought those days are gone, but it turns out I was wrong for the wedding songs have just adopted a different form and are now sung on a different level and platform.  Political slogans are in all essences wedding songs in this age where coalitions are common, and a coalition is in form a nuptial union where the larger party plays the role of the groom and the smaller ones play the role of the bride.

Could be seen differently by some individuals and I would not disagree, because that is their own opinion and perspective on what happens in coalitions, but I would still stick to my view that coalitions are in form and function similar to marriages; where there are constant battles within the family that have to be sorted out if the family is to experience bliss or some semblance of it for a larger part of the union if the marriage is not to end in divorce.
Divorce is actually not a joyous experience; it is a tedious affair with court cases, snide remarks, malicious altercations, and endless tiffs.
However, if one is to listen to the political slogans chanted during these moments where divisions between allies become apparent, one cannot miss the same amount of sarcasm and wit in the words as was heard in the wedding songs.

The same amount of care is still applied in the composition of the songs, the dance moves are carefully choreographed, and the pomp and the merriment are of the same kind as in wedding songs; the only difference here is that the flag is not plain white but is a coloured banner bearing the party colours.
The union between parties is a good practice, but the only problem is that they forget to design a standard flag that bears all their parties’ colours or at least some design that is of interest to all of them.  They call it coalition, but they fly different colours, which are in logical view nonsensical; for one cannot claim to be married but still keep different surnames, or, have one side’s heart finger wearing the union ring whilst the other does not have it. Many of us claim to be apolitical and are not interested in the politics of this land, but I find this stance as a symptom of an apoplexy born of dissatisfaction with the system of governance.

I find the claim to be apolitical similar to that of the atheist who claims not to believe in any god whatsoever whilst they have a chronic obsession with their countenance in the mirror like Narcissus had with his in the waters of the stream. Claiming to be apolitical whilst still making arguments about the state of affairs in the state is at its most basic hypocritical denial of the obvious; you can never be divorced from that which you kiss every morning, and that which keeps your world balanced to a certain reasonable degree even if you claim to have no interest in it. Being a travelling handyman, I look at the various headlines hung on poles on my way to work, and they in my head are similar to the titles of the songs I hear on the radio; songs that goad and rile, that mock and lure the listener to other level states of mind, that draw fervent support of the party followers.  Look at the headlines and hear the party slogans played on the million radio stations in a country of a million citizens and you will fall in love with the political madness going on.  Listen to the comments of the ruling party’s members as the slogans are played and you will understand what it means to be in government.  Also give a listen to the caustic remarks of the losing parties, and you will realise that it will take at least a millennium before this country matures to the required level of political awareness, where the needs of the masses are of more importance than the vilifying propagandas of the popular unqualified political analysts.

Slogans and wedding songs are similar in a lot of ways, but I prefer the latter form of song because it delivers a message of union between all the parties involved in the huff and pass of the wedding day.  The political slogans of this day have adopted an unsavoury character. About five years ago, I witnessed the recording of party songs by a motley crew of individuals that included a blind man, an old lady, an individual with albinism, a party henchman, and various individuals of unknown origin. I was glad to be part of the crowd watching the recording session, for it was an interesting event that would spur the political spirits of the masses that would go on to vote a new form of government into power.

From those songs, a new coalition government was formed, but it would go on to last a mere half term.
One hears the same songs sung these days and the coalition government in power faces the brunt of a political storm, and whether or not it will survive it is dependent on the level of understanding of what true democratic politics mean.

Political democratic governance was invented for the sole purpose of letting every individual have a say in the harmonious running of the state
It was adopted as a system of rule that would grant the citizens their basic right, that is, the right to peaceful interaction with their neighbours; but if it descends to the point where individuals seem to believe that they have a right to vituperate the ruling government based on certain perspectives that under normal circumstances can be amicably resolved, then such a democracy is not a democracy but a mere gossip session where one side believes their view to be more right than the other side’s standpoint.  It is of no sense to think one is in a democracy if one side sees the other as “the other”, for there should in logical democratic circumstances be no concept of the other exercised.  All of us are neighbours and fellow citizens that have to share the meagre and the plenteous resources afforded into our keep by nature.  The fact of the matter is that we should have a peaceful state to live in. Anyone that wants their word and their song to be heard above the interests of the ordinary citizens, that is, the individual that believes their interests hold more clout than those of the state and government, is playing the role of the rogue propagandist who should be charged for the crimes of sedition and high treason; for their act soon stirs the minds of the citizens into orgies of violence and dissension at the expense of peaceful rule where all individuals are granted the right to express themselves in a harmonious manner.

That people end up conquered is not due to weakness in battle; people end up conquered because they have weaknesses within their midst.  Those constant snide remarks that could be of better use as rational advice that promotes the welfare of citizens should be done away with. Those gossip sessions disguised as caucuses must be terminated, for out here, one soon hears them on the radio and reads their often one-sided views that in no way express the maladies unemployment and increasing poverty levels have bequeathed upon this kingdom of plenty. We starve not because we lack, we starve because there are struggles instead of co-operations to utilise available resources for the benefit of all the citizens of the state.  If the chanting of the slogans was reminiscent in form and function to the singing of the wedding songs, and if the political slogans were chanted for the sole purpose of wit and humour, then the political struggles that have landed this country in the murk it now is in would not be. Get a sense of humour and you will soon realise that slogans are composed for the sole purpose of keeping party members entertained at those boring party rallies.

Those rallies would be tedious affairs were there no songs sung to keep the spirits of the attendees up with humorous lyrics.
If the songs you sing deface and abuse the being and the countenance of the next individual, then they are not songs in rational terms.
They are just chants expressing megalomania. Wedding songs are meant to make the day of union a day of merriment. What wedding songs are you now singing?

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Who will speak on behalf of Basotho?



A clash was reported to have taken place a few weeks ago between police officers, on the one hand, and an MP and his bodyguards, on the other, was always inevitable. It is a direct result of arrangements where people we have lent power to represent us in Parliament now use that power to come up with schemes by which they and their bodyguards should be exempted from equal treatment, and be treated differently from the rest us.

This conduct is anti-seMohlomi, and anti-seMoshoeshoe. And so are many other behaviours we have seen perpetrated by our MPs.

We can expect that those who behave this way will not stop at violation of road traffic laws but will go on to carry contraband in ‘MP’ registered vehicles, and claim exemption from police searches when confronted by the police.
The principle of ‘equality before the law’, and the principle that we should all be treated the same, is a fundamental requirement for the maintenance of social order. MPs who ignore, or violate, it are sources of social disorder. Such MPs have to be regarded as enemies of social order in Lesotho. They should bear in mind that they are opposing society when they oppose the police’s attempts to enforce the law.

We should all obey traffic laws. And, we should all stand in long queues for poor services at the Passport and Traffic Offices. Otherwise, if those we have voted into power use that power to exempt themselves and their bodyguards from poor public services, MPs will have no incentive and interest to work for improved quality of public service.
The failure by MPs and governments to address problems of poor public services is an important reason why everyday many Basotho cross into South Africa in search of better education, better medical services, and lower prices of basic necessities. That traffic includes cars which bear red registration numbers ferrying Lesotho public officials to South Africa for better services.

As always, MPs, Ministers, and other public servants will probably be exempted, or expect to be exempted, from the torment that comes with the new customs regime agreed by Revenue Services (SARS) and Revenue Services Lesotho (RSL), and implemented at RSA-Lesotho border posts. Exemption of officials and MPs will mean that they will have no interest, nor incentive, to lessen its toll on Basotho.
The new regime started early in August 2023. To educate travellers about it, the RSL staff at the Maseru border have been giving people leaflets that explain the new procedures.

Even before this new regime, and others that came before it, many people have always been suspicious that a lot of what people who enter Lesotho go through is not in the Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU) Agreement. For example, it is known that the Agreement is supposed to ensure that citizens of SACU member-countries do not pay tax on a similar item in more than one SACU country. In other words, citizens of SACU member-states should not be taxed twice, or more, for the same item within the SACU area.

But because of the bureaucracy that has been imposed on customs processes at the Lesotho-South Africa borders, many people fall victim to some bureaucratic detail, or other, and end up paying tax in South Africa and Lesotho for a similar item, or service.
In the new regime agreed by RSL and SARS, RSL officials tell us that we are supposed to stamp all receipts of value of M250, and above, at SARS. They say this while distributing a leaflet that says the threshold is M10 000.

For the M250 receipt to be stamped, you need to submit to SARS copies of pages of your passport showing your address in Lesotho, and showing dates on which you travelled to and from South Africa. The implication of this is that if you carry a South African passport you cannot bring groceries into Lesotho for reasons including the fact that Lesotho government cannot claim tax from South Africa on such goods. It is unclear what will happen to a South African tourists coming to Lesotho who might be refused permission to enter with their food.

As said, the requirement that we should stamp M250 receipts at SARS is not on the leaflet RSL officials are giving to travellers. Extraordinarily, RSL officials admit this.
So, at the expense of our time, and standing in receipt-stamping queues that will inevitably grow longer and longer, we are being forced to adhere to a requirement which is nowhere in the official papers.

Has the new regime been negotiated and agreed to by RSL officials alone, or is the government aware of the unreasonable measures that we have to comply with?
It must be said that, at least, for now, the RSL staff remain very helpful, and seem to acknowledge that requirements they are expected to enforce are unreasonable.
It seems nobody thinks of us when government and officials agree to onerous customs measures at our border posts. In part this is because, again, those we have lent power to represent us use that power to exempt themselves onerous procedures that they negotiate and agree to.
We need people who think of us when they negotiate customs and other agreements. Basotho need somebody who can speak on their behalf.

Prof Motlatsi Thabane

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Developing close reading skills



One of the most important skills in adeptly dealing with comprehension-related questions lies in your acquisition and refining close-reading competencies and strategies. The word comprehend means to understand, to fully grasp the essence of a text. When you comprehend a text you will take in, as it were, all the elements of a text, you nibble in, to speak using metaphors, your teeth into the heart of the text. You savour the text, immersing yourself in the texture of the text.

Close-reading involves deep observation and critical analysis of a text or comprehension passage. Close-reading strategies demands that the reader of a text pick even the salient nuances of a text, he or she must take in all the hues and details of a text which are not mentioned directly in the text. This skill takes time to hone, but with constant practice and hard work, it can be done. Let’s do that in a practical way. We are going to focus on a very small extract depicting how one aspiring ironman trained rigorously to realise his dream and the social and emotional toll the training exerted on the man and his family and how, finally he won, much to the happiness and excitement of his family. Here is the extract, as you read, please focus on the use of language to create meaning and effect. Let’s try to discern the feelings of the writer when her husband, eventually became an ironman.

“Because it’s there,’ I’d snarl to anyone who dared question why any sane mortal would tackle an Ironman. I enjoyed mercilessly shaming his less-than-supportive business partner into recognising the potentially boundless benefits of Sam’s well-publicised adventure for their newly-established, fledgling travel company. A flurry of online articles described me as ‘a runner married to a triathlete’ – it took me a few moments to recognise our family and beam with immeasurable pride.
Our son missed having Dad around at the weekends, especially if he woke up after Sam had left to train on a Saturday when sometimes there were tears. But he got used to the different dynamic. He was given an ‘Ironman’ superhero toy as a birthday gift by some relatives and immediately started making it swim, bike and run! The poor child thinks that this is how normal families operate.

Having said all that, watching Sam emerge god-like from the water, power past us on his bike and rocket down the finishing chute, head held high as our kids cheered with the crowd – utterly incredible and intoxicating, one of life’s rare pinnacles of perfection. It had been an epic journey for all of us. I’m so glad we did it. And next year? Well yes, it’s my turn.”

Have you seen how this extract is written in a very captivating way; it colourfully depicts the writer’s feelings of extreme excitement and euphoria when Sam completed the race successfully. The words, “having said all that” are colourful and conclusive. Before these words were uttered, the narrator was expressing her dissatisfaction about Sam’s involvement in sport and how demanding it was emotionally, physically and financially. But, now, the words show that the success overwhelmed even the sentiments or expressions of dissatisfaction registered earlier. One can also see that the writer is overwhelmed by pride and celebration at the success of her husband and she and the entire crowd were immersed in an “intoxicating” experience. Beer intoxicates, so the writer uses this word as a word picture to graphically show the intensity and pervasive nature of the happiness generated by Sam’s victory — it is as if they were overdrunk with the sense of success and accomplishment. Sam’s win evoked all those rare moments in life when all seems to be perfect and in its place; that is why the writer used the words, “life’s rare pinnacles of perfection” just to express that.

Have you also noticed how the writer uses a lot of word pictures to describe her reactions about people’s views regarding her husband’s involvement in the ironman race? One such word, a word picture is “flurry.” The word explains the immensity as well as the amount of excitement and frenzy of publicity generated by Sam’s attempt to be the iron man. This word is apt in describing the writer’s admiration for her husband’s feat and the publicity and excitement generated.
Let’s now focus on another text, let’s focus on how the extract reveals why people hate snakes as a result of the misconceptions they have about them. But notice how the writer arguably writes to endear us to the world of snakes and some of their very positive attributes. Let’s nibble at the text of the extract.

“In the United States, for example, public outcry based on fear and misinformation recently halted a scientifically sound conservation plan for timber rattlesnakes. Another project at the same location that involved releasing eagles was embraced by the community. Rattlesnakes are no less important than eagles. In fact, they may help reduce the incidence of Lyme disease, which affects thousands of people each year, by reducing the number of rodents that harbour this disease. But emotions override facts, it seems, where snakes are concerned. Snakes play an integral role in maintaining balance in the ecosystem – in most ecosystems on earth, snakes can be both predator and prey. When a large prey-population attracts and sustains a large snake population, those snakes become prey for birds, mammals and even other snakes! As predators, snakes keep prey-populations in balance. Snakes provide an easy, environmentally friendly, free and natural pest-control service. But snakes are worth saving not because of what they can do for us, but because of who they are. Snakes share many behaviours with us, behaviours we value. They have friends. They take care of their kids and even their friends’ kids too. Want to help us change how people view and treat snakes? Visit the World Snake Day website.”

While you were still reading, I hope you saw that this is a really captivating text. It focuses on the misconceptions and lack of information we have about snakes, which information gaps lead us into hating snakes without reason. True, snakes are predatory but they also serve an important function in balancing the ecological balance.

Snakes are not that bad, too; and like us humans, they make friends, protect their young ones and the young ones of their friends. Pretty amazing to learn that snakes, too, have friends.

So the point is that there are a lot of falsehoods and misconceptions about snakes and their true habits and functions within the ecological sphere. Often times, they are shown to be cruel, bloody predators that kill in cold-blood. But snakes are also victims from birth and other creatures. Snakes are a natural means to curb diseases which are brought about by rodents. Thus, snakes help in maintaining balance in the ecosystem. Snakes are relational and friendly.
Let’s now hone close-reading skills a little more. In the following extract, the writer beautifully describes her experiences of meeting snakes in their natural habitats in the rainforest and her excitement of seeing quite an exciting array of species. As you read, focus on the writer’s reaction to what she saw and how she is alive to the beautiful scenery around her and she captures that.

“Three hours later, returning from the trek, I felt bubbles of amazement and wonder rising. I’d seen gliding lizards fly effortlessly between trees, intricate dragonflies of infinite varieties and delicately etched, golden frogs. The overcast sky, saturated to the brim, had poured down heavily, drenching the forest, its native creatures, and the handful of humans who happened to be there. Thereafter began the frenzy of activities and sounds that engulfs the woods after a good rain – rhythmic sounds, musical, coordinated and orchestrated, and pleasantly deafening. Ah! My brimming heart and soothed soul enjoyed restful sleep in the tent that first night. Bonfires and loud music are prohibited to avoid any disturbance to animals and hygienic common bathrooms (with hot-water facilities) were appreciated. Everyone was expected to wash their own plates and glasses after every meal. We were encouraged to separate organic waste into the respective dustbins before retiring each night. All inorganic waste went back with you.”

You have picked words which convey meaning so aptly and beautifully. I liked the expression and the choice of words. The phrase, “bubbles of amazement” is so colourful and this is a word picture which shows or reflects the intensity of the writer’s excitement and frenzy at experiencing the tranquil and pleasant experience of being in a rainforest teeming with a vast array of species.

Here we are! Mastering close reading skills is a journey, but an exciting one, which allows you to immerse yourself in the text and allows you to feel all the juicy aspects of the text, as it were.

 Vuso Mhlanga teaches at the University of Zimbabwe. For almost a decade and half he taught English language and Literature in English at high school. Send your comments and questions to:

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The significance of BRICS for the African continent



In the pioneering work titled “Building Better Global Economic BRICs” (Global Economics Paper No: 66), Lord Jim O’Neill, then Chief Economist at Goldman Sachs, introduced the term BRICs, referring to the emerging economies of Brazil, Russia, India, and China. These nations’ economies were experiencing rapid growth, fuelling discussions about their potential to collectively shape the global economy by 2050. In the spirit of this vision, the leaders of Brazil, Russia, India, and China convened for the first time in July 2006, on the sidelines of the G8 Outreach Summit in St Petersburg, Russia. This marked a pivotal moment in cementing the idea of forming a consortium of burgeoning economies.

Subsequently, the Foreign Ministers of these countries assembled in New York City in 2006 on the sidelines of the United Nations General Assembly and embraced the term “BRIC” as originally coined by Lord Jim O’Neill. On June 16, 2009, the inaugural ‘BRIC’ Summit was held in Yekaterinburg, Russia. Later, South Africa was granted full membership in September 2010 during a BRIC Foreign Ministers meeting on the fringes of the UN General Assembly. This led to the alteration of the acronym to BRICS. Building on this progress, South Africa participated in the Third BRICS Summit in Sanya, China, on April 14, 2011.

BRICS is firmly anchored in the principles of mutual respect, sovereign equality, inclusivity, consensus, and strengthened collaboration. The foundation of BRICS rests upon three pivotal pillars: political and security cooperation, financial and economic collaboration, and cultural and people-to-people exchanges. These pillars serve as a robust framework for guiding the alliance’s interactions and ensuring its enduring viability. This sentiment is particularly pronounced as the 15th BRICS Summit, slated for August 22-24, 2023, in Johannesburg, South Africa, convenes under the theme “BRICS and Africa: Partnership for Mutually Accelerated Growth, Sustainable Development, and Inclusive Multilateralism.”

Drawing from the World Bank data from 2022, the combined population of the five BRICS nations stands at 3.27 billion, constituting 41.1% of the global population. These countries’ cumulative Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for 2022 is valued at 25.92 trillion, accounting for 25.8% of the world’s GDP. In contrast, Africa’s total population across its 55 countries is estimated at 1.4 billion, representing 17.5% of the global population. Africa’s overall GDP amounts to approximately US$3.0 trillion, contributing 2.7% to the global GDP.

The African Development Bank’s African Economic Outlook for 2023, underscores Africa’s abundant natural resources — oil, gas, minerals, land, sunlight, wind, and biodiversity —whose potential remains largely untapped and undervalued. The report highlights Africa’s trillion-dollar investment potential in the climate and green growth sectors, offering a promising avenue for private sector involvement.

The UN Conference on Trade and Development’s (UNCTAD) BRICS Investment Report for 2023 reveals that the BRICS economies collectively account for 18% of global exports and approximately $250 billion in foreign direct investment outflows. Notably, the BRICS nations have emerged as significant investors in Africa, with a particular focus on industrial and service sectors, as confirmed by the Africa Development Bank’s Briefing Note titled “Africa and the BRICS: A Win-Win Partnership?” (2003).
Moreover, the BRICS countries have expanded their presence on the continent in terms of foreign direct investment, outpacing traditional partners such as the United States and Europe. This emphasis on harnessing natural resources and boosting agricultural production is also underscored by the UN Economic Commission for Africa’s (UNECA) Report “BRICS/Africa Partnership for Development” (2014).

Leveraging their substantial economic potential, the BRICS nations are optimally positioned to support Africa’s aspirations under the AU Agenda 2063. These countries play a pivotal role in driving investments in natural resource beneficiation, manufacturing, and industrialisation across the continent. They also provide strategic impetus for enhancing productivity and competitiveness, especially within the agricultural sector, through consistent investment efforts.
The emergence of the BRICS New Development Bank offers an alternative to the Western-dominated multilateral financial institutions, which have historically contributed to Africa’s infrastructure development at a gradual pace. This bank holds the promise of financing comprehensive infrastructure projects across the continent, thereby enhancing connectivity through rail, maritime, air routes, and information and communication technology — an aspiration cherished by the African populace.

A symbiotic partnership between Africa and BRICS has the potential to elevate Africa’s status as a significant player on the global stage. This partnership extends to bolstering Africa’s role in global governance structures, including institutions like the United Nations and Multilateral Financial Institutions. The expansion of BRICS to encompass additional nations, including those from Africa, is poised to inspire African countries to assume greater responsibility for funding their sustainable development endeavours.

This approach empowers African nations to form alliances with developed countries that squarely address the continent’s priorities for sustainable growth and economic transformation. Most notably, the BRICS initiative lays the foundation for a multipolar world, contrasting the prevailing unipolar influence exerted by the US and the G7 countries (Canada, France, Italy, Germany, Japan, UK, and the US). This envisioned multipolar world rests on principles such as mutual respect, sovereign equality, inclusiveness, consensus, and fortified collaborations. The International Monetary Fund, Economic Outlook (April, 2023) reveals that the population of the G7 countries is around 776.55 million representing 9.7% of the global population. The GDP for the G7 countries is around US$42.92 trillion representing around 30% of the world GDP.
In a recent interview with Africa Business in June 2023, Lord Jim O’Neill, the visionary behind BRICS, shared his perspective on the future of BRICS and its implications for Africa. He astutely remarked, “the notion that the group of seven ‘industrialised’ or ‘more developed’ or ‘early developed’ (G7) nations can single-handedly govern the world is disconcerting, given their diminishing share of the global GDP. Moreover, the G7 often finds itself aligned with the desires of Washington (US). How then can these select few address the world’s most pressing challenges? This predicament highlights the raison d’être behind my conception of BRICS: to advocate for a more effective global governance model than what the G7 offers.”

It is for these reasons that the enduring partnership between Africa and BRICS embodies a shared commitment to sustainable development, economic growth, and the transformation of global governance structures. The collaborative approach rooted in mutual benefit, respect, and a multi-polar perspective has the potential to reshape the global landscape, ensuring a more inclusive and prosperous future for all.

Advocate Batlokoa Makong is a seasoned diplomat currently working for the African Union. He writes in his personal capacity.

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